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ART HISTORY 132 Impressionism. Napoléon III (1808-1873) – nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte – tried 2x to overthrow Louis Philippe exiled to NYC for four years;

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Presentation on theme: "ART HISTORY 132 Impressionism. Napoléon III (1808-1873) – nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte – tried 2x to overthrow Louis Philippe exiled to NYC for four years;"— Presentation transcript:

1 ART HISTORY 132 Impressionism

2 Napoléon III (1808-1873) – nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte – tried 2x to overthrow Louis Philippe exiled to NYC for four years; sentenced to life- sentence; escaped in 1846 to England – returns to FR w/ onset of Revolution of 1848 – elected President of Second Republic (1848) – 1851: coup d’etat  December two days of violent fighting in Paris opposition in rural provinces several hundred killed 26K arrested; 10K transported –leading legislators arrested –drastic revision of 1848 constitution extends presidential term to 10 yrs sharply reduces legislature’s powers 1852: declares Second Empire –. 1850s: authoritarian phase press censorship restrictive right to assemble deprived Parliament right to debate –1860s: liberalization political exiles amnestied and allowed to return Parliament given right to present formal resolutions to emperor and engage in free debates relaxed controls on press and public assembly broadened public education

3 “Haussmannization” date: c. 1852-1870 location: downtown Paris renovated effect: working class neighborhoods moved to outskirts of Paris –statistics: – cost of 2.5B francs – doubled acreage of city through annexation – at height of reconstruction, 1 in 5 Parisian workers employed in building trade –achievements: clearing of dense, irregular medieval slums regulations imposed on bldg facades widened streets into boulevards outer circle of railways round Paris sewers/water works (80M francs) construction of expansive parks –by end of 1860s, Paris had 2x as many trees as in 1850 –most transplanted full grown

4 Franco-Prussian War & Siege of Paris (July 1870 – May 1871) Franco-Prussian War –pretext: vacancy of Spanish throne 1868 revolt deposed Bourbons offered to Hohenzollern Prince Leopold –nephew of Prussian king Wilhelm I causes provocation by Bismarck –outcome: German victory after 44 days, Napoleon III surrenders at Battle of Sedan –effect: unification of German Empire end of Second [French] Empire formation of [French] Third Republic Siege of Paris –German army continues towards Paris after Napoleon III’s surrender at Sedan –Pairs bombarded w/ heavy caliber Krupp guns –several months of famine

5 [Paris] Commune (March – May 1871) significance: “most tremendous event in history of European civil wars” (Marx) –Communards aim to “break up bureaucratic and military machine” of bourgeoisie recruit from petty artisans influenced by Socialist revolutionaries called for separation of church and state –“Central Committee" alternative to political and military power of National Assembly (Thiers) increasingly radical stance –separation of church and state –right to vote for women –grants pensions to unmarried companions/children of NG killed –remission of rents (during Siege) –pawnshops return workmen's tools/household items –postpones commercial debt –first seizure of power by working class Nat’l Guard  Parisian citizens’ militia Nat’l Assembly (Thiers)  orders army to seize cannons La Semaine Sanglante (“Bloody Week") –trials  40K march to Versailles –executions  10K epilogue: Paris remains under martial law for five years

6 Impressionism exhibition history: 1874-1886 –affiliation  independent thirty (30) artists rejected by the juries of the Salon one hundred sixty-five (165) pictures, drawings, watercolors, engravings, etc. –1 st show  at former Parisian studio (on Boulevard des Capucines) of photographer Nadar criticism: –conservative (re: Academic)  “Intransigeants” (derogatory term linked to Socialist politics) subject matter: turns away from Renaissance tradition –uninterested in religion, mythology & history; instead, looks to contemporary life –leisure, transportation & down-and-outs ridiculed style; disgusted by aesthetic; compared to scribblings of a naïve child »negation of elementary rules of drawing and painting »disdained “impasto” brushwork »seems casual to the point of careless »distinguished from Renaissance style that used flat, smooth paint surface »dabs of “broken” color »destroys form »leads to loss of solidity, structure & composition

7 Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) significance: “father of modern criticism” –B prophesized after Salon of 1845 "He shall be the true painter who can pull out of everyday life its epic side….” biography: –father  60 year-old, ex-priest and widower; married 26 year-old orphan –1841: B voyage to India to cure syphillis –1842: on return to Paris, meets Jeanne Duval woman of mixed race became his mistress –1848: fought at barricades during Revolution associated w/ [Socialist] Proudhon –1851: opposed coup d'état of Louis-Napoleon aesthetic: “Decadents” –formed w/ Mallarmé and Verlaine The Flowers of Evil (1857) –sympathy for prostitute, who revolts against bourgeois family –found guilty of obscenity The Painter of Modern Life (1863) –dandy  hero »purposeless existence »snobbish aesthete

8 “Japonisme” context: ethnographic exhibitions in Holland during 1830s of Japanese print collections and books (e.g., Hokusai’s Manga)Hokusai’s appreciation of all things Japanese stimulated by Paris Exposition Universelle (1867) part of 19C’s continuing “romantic” dialogue w/ exotic culture aim: to “designate a new field of study — artistic, historic, and ethnographic” (Burty) –history  Kanagawa Treaty (US Navy opens Japanese ports, after two centuries of isolation_Kanagawa Treaty –economics/trade prints & decorative arts (e.g., porcelains, furniture) flood into Europe, creating a craze in 1860s avidly collected by artists, critics, and connoisseurs Japanese goods obtainable in Parisian department stores (grand magasins) by 1880 critics (“avant garde”): continually supported value of Japanese art –Ernest Chesneau’s “Beaux-Arts, L’Art Japonais” (1868) “… the authority of the principle of observation in Japanese art is that it renders w/ a remarkable aesthetic power and an inimitable perfection of design (re: asymmetry)” –Zacharie Astruc defender and friend of Manet articles for L’Etendard (1867-68) spoke out on Japanese art at Exposition Universelle –Philippe Burty  coins the term in 1872

9 Édouard Manet (1832-83) biography: born into ranks of Parisian bourgeoisie –mother  daughter of diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince –father  high-ranking Minister of Justice –uncle (maternal)  encouraged him to pursue painting; often took M to Louvre training: –1845: M enrolls in drawing course; meets Proust (future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent life-long friend) –1850: studio of Thomas Couture credo: “Painter of modern life” (Baudelaire) exhibition history: believed success only obtained by recognition @ Salon –often rejected; exhibited @ Salon des Refusés (1863) –never exhibited w/ Impressionists fully supported their aims worked closely w/ Monet artistic sources: “universalist” –Renaissance (Florentine & Venetian) –Baroque Velazquez (SP Baroque) Dutch still lifes –Japanisme

10 Manet’s The Luncheon on the Grass (1863)

11 MANET’s Impressionist Luncheon on the Grass (1863) vs. GIORGIONE’s Venetian Renaissance Pastoral Symphony (c. 1510)

12 MANET’s Impressionist Luncheon on the Grass (1863) vs. detail from RAPHAEL’s High Italian Renaissance The Judgment of Paris (c. 1520)

13 Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass detail: still-life –brushwork: painterly forms est. by building up paint, rather than through contour –textures: variety fruit leaves wicker blanket –light/shadow: consistent source creates sense of volume

14 Manet’s Olympia (1863)

15 (Left) Titian’s Venetian Ren. Venus of Urbino (c. 1535) vs. (right) Manet’s Impressionist Olympia (1863)

16 (Left) CABANEL’s The Birth of Venus (1863) vs. (right) MANET’s Olympia (1863)

17 MANET’s Impressionist The Railroad (1872-73)The Railroad

18 Details from Manet’s The Railway

19 Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1882)

20 Details from Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergere

21 James Abbot McNeill Whistler James Abbot McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) biography: American-born, British-based artist –attended West Point (for only two months) –leaves for Paris, never to return to USA training: Paris (c. 1855) –rents studio in Latin Quarter; adopts life of bohemian artist –traditional art methods Ecole Impériale atelier of Charles Gabriel Gleyre self-study (copying at Louvre) –friendship w/ Henri Fantin-Latour introduced to circle of Courbet –including Manet & Baudelaire career: credo  "art for art's sake” –1858-60: London –1861-63: Paris –1864-65: London –1866: visits Chile for political reasons –1867-78: London –1879: Venice

22 (Left) WHISTLER’s Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen (1864) vs. (right) WHISTLER’s Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother known as “Whistler's Mother” (1871)

23 Whistler Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge (1872-75) –process: utilized method of composing from memory transposing forms of a scene to canvas w/out visually returning to actual motif –brushwork: work rapidly thinned oil paint specially prepared "sauce“ able to bring the entire canvas to a level of finish in a single session similar to watercolor  fluid spontaneity –motif: debt to Japanese art (Hiroshige) almost abstract span of the bridge bridge itself is unpainted –announces its form by leaving dark ground of canvas exposed

24 (Left) WHISTLER’s Nocturne in Blue & Gold: Old Battersea Bridge (1872-75) vs. (right) HIROSHIGE’s Japanese “Riverside bamboo market” (1857) from series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

25 Whistler Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875) –exhibition history: Grosvenor Gallery alternative to Royal Academy shown alongside Pre-Raphaelites –1877: W sues critic John Ruskin for libel R had been champion of Pre- Raphaelites and J. M. W. Turner praised B-J, while attacked W –“ill-educated conceit of the artist so nearly approached the aspect of willful imposture” –“I have seen, and heard, much of Cockney impudence before now; but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public's face” W hoped to recover £1,000 plus costs verdict  in favor of W, but only awarded mere farthing –court costs split –sends W into bankruptcy

26 Claude Monet (1840-1926) significance: leader of the Impressionists aesthetic aim: fleeting effects of nature application of paint: “impasto” color: –dabs of pigment blend in viewer’s eyes –create sparkle & vibration –“complimentary” pairs: red & green; blue & orange; yellow & purple oeuvre: remarkable transformation –early work: directly seen objects (e.g., streets and harbors, beaches, roads, and resorts) usually filled w/ human beings or showing traces of human play and activity –mature/late work: excludes human figure gives up still-life genre increasingly silent & solitary world

27 Monet’s Impression: Sunrise (1872)Impression: Sunrise

28 Monet Boulevard of the Capucines (1874) –setting: boulevard of Nadar’s studio –subject: winterscape –perspective: linear & aerial –composition: dynamic –color: muted; pastels –light/shadow: even distribution –figures: abbreviated, implied forms –brushwork: painterly fluid & intuitive forms built up by paint, rather than by line/contour

29 Monet: mature style (c. 1890s) late 1880s and the 1890s: gained critical and financial success –primarily due to efforts of Durand-Ruel sponsored one-man exhibitions of Monet’s work organized first large-scale Impressionist group show in United States aesthetic: more expansive and expressive style –strictly illusionistic aspect began to disappear –three-dimensional space evaporated –purely optical surface atmosphere “serial” paintings: –“fixes” the subject matter paints subjects from more or less same physical position treats subject like an experimental constant changing effects of could be measured and recorded –allows only natural light and atmospheric conditions of varying climatic and seasonal conditions to vary from picture to picture –color scheme: contrived and artificially heightened

30 MONET’s (Left) Wheatstacks: End of Summer (1890-91) and (right) Grain Stacks: Snow Effect (1890-91)

31 Monet’s Impressionist Water Lilies (c. 1900)

32 (Left) Monet’s Impressionist Water Lilies (c. 1900) vs. (right) Hollander’s Water Lilies: Snapper Creek (2015)

33 Monet’s Japanese Bridge (1924)

34 Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) biography: –good friends w/ Monet when both poor & struggling –often painted w/ Monet in Paris & its suburbs –joyous personality subjects: –delightful, intimate outdoor scenes –leisure time & gaiety of middle-class Parisians at cafes and concerts narrative: spontaneous effect of photography light & shadow: –fleeting effects of sunlight –falls in patches, dappling the surface handling of paint: –loose & rapid –thick application (“impasto”)

35 Renoir’s Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)

36 RENOIR’s Impressionist Le Moulin de la Galette (c. 1875) vs. POUSSIN’s Dance to the Music of Time (c. 1625)

37 Renoir’s The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881)


39 Renoir The Terrace (1881) –subject: portraiture –theme: bourgeois economic freedom –brushwork: painterly –perspective: synthetic implicit linear aerial  cut-off by shrubbery –composition: synthetic stable  figures placed on CVA dynamic: enlivening elements –diverted gazes –diagonal railing –color: vibrant & complimentary –light/shadow: dappling effects

40 (Left) RENOIR’s Impressionist The Terrace (c. 1875) vs. (right) LEONARDO’s High Renaissance Mona Lisa (c. 1500)

41 Details from Renoir’s The Terrace (1881)

42 Renoir’s The Bathers (1887)

43 Renoir’s Later Classicizing Tendency (c. 1890)

44 Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) biography: –daughter of a top civil servant –granddaughter of Rococo painter Fragonard –married to Eugène Manet, brother of painter Édouard Manet training/association: –taught by Corot (Barbizon) –met Manet in 1868 modelled for him & became his pupil began working in “plein air” introduced to Impressionist circle in Paris mature style: impasto brushwork subjects: upper-middle class women, children & domestic life –restricted by social conventions and constraints of her gender and class –subjects chosen from her family and domestic circles

45 Morisot Hide-and-Seek (1873) –subject: bourgeois mother & child –narrative: calm and static –brushwork: painterly fluent, agile, and spontaneous bold/vigorous streaks, dashes & dabs animated and energetic rhythms –forms: blur & obliterate drawing rudimentary characterization of features and textures relatively scant indications of shape and modeling –perspective: linear (implicit) aerial –composition: stable –color: vibrant warm tonalities subtle use of complimentaries –light/shadow: diffuse, flickering

46 Morisot’s Servant Hanging Laundry (1881)

47 Edgar Degas (1834-1917) biography: –aristocrat from a banking family w/ ties to cotton industry in New Orleans –politically & socially conservative –did not think art should be available to lower class subjects: –ballet –“down-and-outs” –emotional indifference of bourgeoisie style: more “linear” –strict academic training –aim to appear unstudied, despite working methodically –“sense” of spontaneity in loose brushwork compositions: influenced by photography –void spaces –severely cropped –sharp angles & perspectives

48 Degas The Absinthe Drinker (1876) –theme: genre scene –subject: addiction/isolation –figures: prostitute w/ rag picker (proletariat) –brushwork: sketch-like, yet forms bordered by dark contours –composition: dynamic arrangement of sharp diagonals cropped figures & forms (relate to photography) void spaces –color: muted –light/shadow: high-keyed (morning ?)

49 Degas Women Ironing (1884) –medium: oil –theme: genre scene –subject: proletariat –narrative: moment of respite vs. heroic –figures: massive –brushwork: sketch-like –forms: bordered by dark contours –composition: dynamic high angle arrangement of sharp diagonals –color: muted –light/shadow: even distribution

50 Degas’ Place de la Concorde (1875)

51 Degas’ The Rehearsal (c. 1875)

52 Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) biography: born in Pittsburgh, PA training: –PA Academy of Fine Arts (1860-62) –Jean-Léon Gérôme (1865) career: –1868: Mandolin Player accepted @ Salon –1874: resettles in Paris after fleeing Franco-Prussian War shows regularly in Salons –1877: D invites her to Impressionists only American associated exhibits in four of eight shows (1879, 1880, 1881, and 1886) subject matter: common events in women's lives (see Utamaro) exhibition: ukiyo-e @ École des Beaux- Arts in Paris (Spring 1890)

53 (Left) CASSATT’s Girl Arranging Her Hair (1886) vs. (right) DEGAS’s Woman Combing Her Hair (1886)

54 (Left) UTAMARO’s ukiyo-e print Midnight (c. 1790) vs. (right) CASSAT’s drypoint etching Maternal Caress (1891)

55 Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94) biography: wealthy young man in midst of avant garde struggle role: Impressionist group –manager/marketing agent de facto negotiated to keep group together through periods of fractious disagreement rented exhibition space, paid for advertising, bought frames –patron bought paintings from his needy colleagues & close friends uncannily astute judgment bequest of his collection to France career: largely forgotten subjects: images of urban life compositions: innovative (see Degas)

56 Caillebotte’s Paris: A Rainy Day (1877)

57 Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) biography: –father  police clerk –1857: denied admission to Ecole des Beaux-Arts 3x due to judges' Neoclassical tastes earned living as craftsman and ornamentor for next two decades –1862-63: stricken by death of sister; w/drew to monastery –1870: enlisted in Nat’l Guard during Franco-Prussian War –1875: traveled to Italy for 2 mos. to study Michelangelo & Donatello –1883: began ten-year affair w/ student, Camille Claudel, then 19 yrs old significance: first sculptor since Bernini aim: to create “new classics” poses/themes: derived from Hellenistic Greek art; also Michelangelo surface texture: unfinished, rough areas –relate to Impressionist adoption of “sketch-like” brushwork

58 Rodin The Thinker (c. 1880) –first cast in 1902 and displayed at St. Louis World's Fair in 1904St. Louis World's Fair approx. 20 other original castings as well as various other versions, studies, and posthumous castings –figure: seated male –pose: seated derived from Greek Hellenism melancholy (see Raphael’s portrait of Michelangelo in School) –musculature: well-defined –facial expression: stoic –spatial order: negative –surface texture: “unfinished” roughness allows for dramatic interplay of light/shadow

59 (Left) Detail of face from RODIN’s The Thinker and (right) detail of feet from RODIN’s The Thinker

60 (Left) RODIN’s The Thinker (c. 1875 CE) vs. (right) Greek Hellenistic Tiber Muse (c. 200 BCE)

61 (Left) RODIN’s The Thinker (c. 1875 CE) vs. (right) detail from RAPHAEL’s High Ren The School of Athens (c. 1500)

62 (Left) RODIN’s The Thinker (c. 1875 CE) vs. (right) Greek Hellenistic Seated Boxer (c. 50 BCE)

63 Rodin The Old Courtesan (1885) –figure: seated female –musculature: naturalistic aging process –pose: derived from Hellenistic interest in everyday life –spatial order: negative –facial expression: stoic –surface texture: “unfinished” roughness allows for dramatic interplay of light/shadow

64 (Left) RODIN’s Impressionist The Old Courtesan (c. 1875 CE) vs. (right) Greek Hellenistic Old Market Woman (c. 2nd century BCE)

65 Rodin The Kiss (1888) –patron: French state for Universal Exhibition in 1889 –subject: from Dante’s Inferno second circle in Hell (infidelity) Paolo & Francesca –figures: seated –musculature: naturalistic –pose: derived from Hellenistic interest in everyday life –spatial order: negative –facial expression: hidden by embrace –surface texture: smooth human qualities rough, “unfinished” natural forms

66 (Left) RODIN’s Impressionist The Kiss (c. 1885 CE) vs. (right) Greek Hellenistic Eros and Psyche (c. 150 BCE)

67 (Left) RODIN’s Impressionist The Kiss (1885) vs. (right) CANOVA’s Neoclassical Eros and Psyche (1793)

68 IMAGE INDEX Slide 2:WINTERHALTER, Franz Xaver. Portrait of Napoleon III (1852), oil on canvas, 240 x 155 cm., Museo Napoleonico, Rome. Slide 3:Aerial photograph of Parisian boulevard. Slide 4:Map of Prussia. Slide 5:Pierre Duchene, La Dictateur Thiers (1871). Slide 7:NADAR. Photograph of Charles Baudelaire. Slide 8:Henri FANTIN-LATOUR. Edouard Manet (1867), Oil on canvas, 117.5 x 90 cm., Art Institute of Chicago. Slide 9: MANET. Luncheon on the Grass (1863), Oil on canvas, 7’ x 8’10”, Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Slide 10:(Left) MANET’s Luncheon on the Grass (1863); and (right) GIORGIONE’s Venetian Renaissance Passtoral Symphony (1510). Slide 11:(Left) MANET’s Impressionist Luncheon on the Grass (1863); and (right) detail from RAPHAEL’s High Italian Renaissance The Judgment of Paris (c. 1520).

69 IMAGE INDEX Slide 12:Detail of picnic basket from MANET’s Luncheon on the Grass (1863) Slide 13:MANET. Olympia (1863), Oil on canvas, 51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 14:(Top) MANET’s Impressionist Olympia (1863); and (bottom) TITIAN’s Venetian Renaissance Venus of Urbino (c. 1525). Slide 15:(Left) CABANEL’s The Birth of Venus (1863); and (right) MANET’s Olympia (1863) Slide 16:MANET. Portrait of Zola (c. 1868), Oil on canvas, 57 1/8 x 44 7/8 in., Musee d’Orsay. Slide 17:MANET. The Railway (1872-73), Oil on canvas, The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Slide 18:Details from MANET’s The Railway Slide 19:MANET. Bar at the Folies-Bergeres (1881-82), Oil on canvas, 37 3/4 x 51 1/4 in., Courtauld Institute Galleries, London.

70 IMAGE INDEX Slide 20:Details of MANET’s Bar at the Folies-Bergeres. Slide 21:WHISTLER. Self Portrait (1872), Oil on canvas, 29 ½ x 21 in., Detroit Institute of Art. Slide 22:(Left) WHISTLER’s Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother known as "Whistler's Mother“ (1871), Oil on canvas, 56 3/4 x 64 in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris; and (right) WHISTLER. Caprice in Purple and Gold No 2 – The Golden Screen (1864). Slide 23:WHISTLER. Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge (1872-77), Oil on canvas, 26 7/8 x 20 1/8 in., Tate Gallery, London. Slide 25:(Left) HIROSHIGE’s “Riverside bamboo market at Kyobashi” (1857), from series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo; and (right) WHISTLER’s Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge (1872-77).

71 IMAGE INDEX Slide 26:WHISTLER. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875), Oil on wood, 23 ¾ x 18 3/8 in., Detroit Institute of Art. Slide 27:Photograph of MONET. Slide 28:MONET. Impression, Sunrise (1872), Oil on canvas, 19 x 24 3/8", Musee Marmottan, Paris. Slide 29:MONET. Boulevard des Capucines (1873), Oil on canvas, 31 1/4 x 23 ¼ in., Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Slide 33:MONET. (Left) Wheatstacks: End of Summer (1890-91); and (right) Grain Stacks: Snow Effect (1890-91), Oil on canvas, 60 x 100 cm., Hill-Stead Museum, Farmington, CT.

72 IMAGE INDEX Slide 34:Slide 10:(Left) MONET’s Poplars on the Epte, Autumn (1891), Philadelphia Museum of Art; (right) Poplars along the River Epte, Winter (1891), Oil on canvas, 39 3/8 x 25 5/8 in., Private collection. Slide 35:MONET. Water Lilies (1903), Oil on canvas, 29 3/8 x 41 7/16 in., Private Collection. Slide 36:MONET. The Japanese Bridge (c. 1918-24), Oil on canvas, 35 x 45 3/4 in., Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Slide 37:BAZILLE. Portrait of Renoir (1867), Oil on canvas, 37 x 32 1/3 in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 38:RENOIR. Le Moulin de la Galette (1876), Oil on canvas, Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 39:Comparison between (left) RENOIR’s Impressionist Le Moulin de la Galette (c. 1875); and (right) POUSSIN’s French Baroque Dance to the Music of Time (c. 1625).

73 IMAGE INDEX Slide 40:RENOIR. The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881), Oil on canvas, 51 x 68 in., Phillips Collection, Washington, DC. Slide 41:Detail of glass in RENOIR’s The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881). Slide 42: RENOIR. On the Terrace (1881), Oil on canvas, 39 ½ x 31 7/8 in., The Art Institute of Chicago. Slide 43:(Left) RENOIR’s Impressionist The Terrace (c. 1875); and (right) LEONARDO’s High Renaissance Mona Lisa (c. 1500). Slide 44:RENOIR. Bathers (1887), Oil on canvas, 3’ 10 3/8 x 5’7 ¼ in., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Slide 45:(Left) RENOIR’s Impressionist Bathers (1887); and (right) CARRACCI’s Italian Baroque Venus and Anchises (c. 1600) from the Farnese Gallery, Rome. Slide 46:Details from Renoir’s The Terrace (1881). Slide 47:MORISOT. In the Garden at Maurecourt (1884), Oil on canvas, 21 ¼ x 25 5/8 in., The Toledo Museum of Art.

74 IMAGE INDEX Slide 48:MORISOT. Peasant Hanging out the Washing (1881), Oil on canvas, 18 x 26 ¼ in., Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark. Slide 49:MORISOT. Hide-and-Seek (1873), Oil on canvas, 17 3/4 x 21 5/8 in., Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art, Las Vegas, NV. Slide 50:DEGAS. Portrait of Degas Reading (1895), Gelatin silver print, 11 5/16 x 15 5/8 in., J. Paul Getty Museum. Slide 51:DEGAS. The Absinthe Drinker (1876), Oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 52:DEGAS. Women Ironing (1884), Oil on canvas, 29 7/8 x 31 7/8 in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 53:DEGAS. Place de la Concorde (1875), Oil on canvas, 30 7/8 x 46 1/4 in., Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. Slide 54:DEGAS. The Rehearsal (c. 1873-78), Oil on canvas, 18 1/2 x 24 3/8 in., Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

75 IMAGE INDEX Slide 55:CASSATT, Mary. Self-portrait (c. 1880), Watercolor on ivory wove paper, 33 x 24 cm, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC. Slide 56:(Left) CASSAT’s Girl Arranging Her Hair (1886); and (right) DEGAS’ Woman Combing Her Hair (1886) Slide 57:(Left) UTAMARO’s ukiyo-e print Midnight (c. 1790); and (right) CASSAT’s Maternal Caress (1891), Drypoint and soft -ground etching, third state, printed in color, 14 3/8 x 10 9/16 in., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Slide 58:CAILLEBOTTE. Man on a Balcony (1880), Oil on canvas, 117 x 90 cm., Private collection. Slide 59:CAILLEBOTTE. Paris: A Rainy Day (1877), Oil on canvas, 83 1/2 x 108 ¾ in., The Art Institute of Chicago. Slide 60:CAILLEBOTTE. The Floor-Scrapers (1875), Oil on canvas, 40 x 57 ¾ in., Musee d'Orsay, Paris. Slide 61:Photograph of Auguste RODIN. Slide 62:RODIN, Auguste. The Thinker (1879-89), bronze, height 27 1/2”, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

76 IMAGE INDEX Slide 63:Detail of face and feet from RODIN’s The Thinker Slide 64:Comparison between RODIN’s The Thinker and (Greek) Hellenistic style Tiber Muse (c. 200 BC). Slide 65:(Left) RODIN’s The Thinker (c. 1875 CE); and (right) detail of Michelangelo from Raphael’s School of Athens (c. 1500) Slide 66:Comparison between RODIN’s The Thinker and (Greek) Hellenistic style Seated Boxer (c. 50 BC), Bronze, approx. 50” high, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome. Slide 67:RODIN, Auguste. The Old Courtesan (1885), Bronze, 20 1/8 x 9 7/8 x 11 3/4 in., Musee Rodin, Paris. Slide 68:Comparison between RODIN’s The Old Courtesan and Hellenistic Old Market Woman (c. 2nd century BC), marble, 49 1/2”, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Slide 69:RODIN, Auguste. The Kiss (1885), Bronze, 87 x 51 x 55 cm., Musee Rodin, Paris.

77 IMAGE INDEX Slide 70:(Left) RODIN’s Impressionist The Kiss (1885); and (right) Hellenistic Eros and Psyche (c. 150 BC), marble, 49” high, Museo Capitolino, Rome. Slide 71:(Left) RODIN’s Impressionist The Kiss (1885); (right) CANOVA’s Neoclassical Eros and Psyche (1793), Musee Louvre, Paris.

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