English in a changing world The Second Year Pack
English in a changing world b Wang zhen b firstname.lastname@example.org
Contents 1 Changing English in a Changing World:An Overview 2 English in the Past 3 The Spread of English Beyond Britain 4 Socal varieties of English 5 Trade Within and Across Language Barriers 6 Changing English since the Sencond World War 7 Emerging "New Englishes" : A Focus for Debate 8 English in a Shrinking World
Changing Eglish in a Changing World :An Overview
At the end of this unit,you should be able to do the following things,or do them better than you can now explain why languages change as people change recognise and describe examples of change understand some of the special English vocabulary used in talking about language explain what is meant by varieties of English
Unit One Changing English in a Changing World: An Overview Difficult Points: Differences among languages, dialects, and accents
Task 1 1. Languages change with time; 2. The number of languages in the world is 4000-5000; 3. No one can give a more exact number because (a) the number depends on what counts as a dialect and what counts as a language; (b) some languages have disappeared, and we know nothing about them; 4. When we speak of languages as living or dead, we use a metaphor ( 暗喻 ).
Task 2 Finding out How Language Changes in the Life of an Individual Person Idiolect – your own individual language
Task 3 Analysing the Meaning of “ Living ” and “ Dead ” Language Tim doesn ’ t like learning Latin because – 1 there is too much homework to do 2 it is hard to remember all the new vocabulary 3 there are no speakers of Latin to talk to 4 there seem to be no interesting things to read in Latin
Summary 1. All the languages we know about change with time. 2. There are, at present, between 4000 and 5000 languages in use in the world. 3. Just how many languages, depends what counts as a language and what counts as a variety or dialect. 4. Your individual language changes with age too. 5. Older people usually dislike the changes they notice. 6. We need to be careful about talking about language as if it were a living thing. Historical variation – the variation of a language over time
Activity 2 Variation in English Different Places
Task 1 Regional variation – varieties of English in different places
Task 2 Standard English – written English Received Pronunciation – RP, BBC English Network English – Educated American English Not all varieties of English are equally important, or important in the same way.
Task 3 Learners want to learn to read and to write Standard English for international use. They want to speak and understand English that approximates to Educated British or to Educated American English. Very few of them want to sound like native speakers, but they do want to sound like competent users of an international language.
Summary 1. There are different varieties of English that is spoken and understood in different parts of the world. These are regional varieties or regional dialects. 2. Both native speakers and second language users of English find some of these hard to understand. The English of writing – Standard English – is similar throughout the English speaking world. 3. Two varieties – Educated British and Educated American English – are widely taught and learned. They are used and understood wherever English is in use. 4. There is no single Authority for the use of English.
Activity 3 Observing Vocabulary Change in English
Task 1 Developing Awareness of New Vocabulary Change in language matches change in people ’ s lives.
Task 2 Where do new words come from? 1. Pronouncing the initial ( 首个 ) letters of several words, which form the word acronym ( 首字母缩写词，比如 TOEFL). 2. English borrows words from other languages. 3. Old words are used with new meanings.
Task 3 Undersdanding “ borrowing ” between Languages
Summary 1. By studying texts you can observe change in English as it happens. 2. New words are invented, or borrowed to match new meanings. Or old words are used with new meanings. 3. Words in use are dropped when they are no longer needed. 4. The rate of change in language is uneven. 5. As people grow older, they notice change and they often don ’ t like it. In fact the rate of change is not so fast that people living at the same time fail to understand each other.
Activity 4 Languages and Dialects in the United Kingdom
Task 1 Comparing Scale and Distance in the British Isles and China
Task 2 Languages used in Britain: English – all over the kingdom, about 55 million people use it all the time Welsh – still used in Wales Gaelic – used in Scotland and Ireland Some other languages like Polish and Indian subcontinent Bilingual, bi-dialectal
Task 3 A language is the major means of human communication: There are usually reckoned to be about 5000 languages in use in the world. Only some of these have a writing system. A dialect is a variety of a language – but there is no sure way to tell a different language from a different dialect. The term accent has to do only with the sounds of speech.
Summary 1. Compared with China, England is a small country. 2. Communications are good, and it is usually possible to reach every part of it quickly. 3. You might expect to find that the same language is spoken in a very similar way in different parts – but you would be wrong.
4. There are many different languages spoken by minorities in the United Kingdom. 5. English is spoken in different parts in very different ways – that is, there are many regional dialects. 6. Regional dialects generally are not so well respected as the Standard English you have studied. 7. Most native speakers can understand several dialects – and have difficulty with others.
Activity 5 Experiencing Some Regional Varieties of English
Task 1 Introduction to a Rather Different Sort of Activity
Task 2 Studying the same Text First in Standard English and Then in Four Regional Varieties
Task 4 Investigating some Practical Applications of This Activity
Summary 1. Only some speakers in each of these places speaks in this way all the time. Some can speak in this way when they want to – and quite differently when they choose. They are bi-dialectal. 2. The speakers who use only the accents you heard tend to be the older and the less well educated people in the community. 3. This Activity should show you that the English you study is only one variety among many – but it is a uniquely important one.
Key Points: IIdentify the place of English among other related languages IIdentify Standard English among other varieties UUnderstand and explain what is meant by structural differences among languages UUnderstand and explain how users of English as a second language can use knowledge abut English Difficult Points: EEnglish differs at different times LLanguage families BBi-dialectal
UNIT 2 English in the Past This uint tells something about the past history of English.Just as English is different in different places so it varies at different times.There are historical dialects just as there are regional dialects.Language is shaped by the experiences of the people who use it and changes with their changing needs.we shall start with a look at the English of some past times — and then move further back in time to see how English came to be spoken ni the United Kingdom,and how it is nearly related to some languages and only distantly related,or not related at all,to others.this sort of study may seem at first sight a long way removed from everyday concerns,But it is closely connected with a pressing problemfor all students and teathers of languages — Why is it that languageare so much harder for some learners than they seem to be for others?
The English Language And Its History: How has history been responsible for the distribution and the change of the English language throughout the U.K.? What do you know?
Some confusing concepts Scandinavian invasions Germanic invasion Germanic group (branch) Viking
English Language Style And Variation – 13 th To 18 th Centuries How can we tell, by comparing these four language examples of the 13 th to the 18 th centuries, that the English language has altered over this period? In pairs (using these examples) list ways in which the English language seems to have changed over this 500 year period. (15 minutes)
Language Families Unit 2: Activity 2 – Task 1 (pp 64-66) The Indo-European family (the Aryan family) The Sino-Tibetan family
The Indo-European family English, Spanish, French, German, Russian, Portuguese, Hindi, German, Bengali Latin, Greek, Persian, Sanskrit
The Indo-European family The Celtic Branch The Germanic Branch The Latin Branch The Slavic Branch The Baltic Branch The Hellenic Branch The Illyric Branch …
The English Language And the Romans: Unit 2: Activity 2 – Tasks 1-2 (pp64-67) What are some of the Latin ‘ root ’ forms that Tim and Mrs Robinson discussed? What English words do you know that have these ‘ roots ’ ?
What Do These Words Mean? proficient; progress; subtitle; subscriber anticlockwise; antisocial; antenna; antenatal; transit; transparent; intervene; interracial
The Conquest of Britain and Change on English whenwhowhere from BC 1st C - AD 5th C RomansMediterranean AD 5th C.AD- 8th & 9th C Scandinavians- Angles, Saxons, Jutes North West Europe AD 11th CNorman French Normandy
Examples of English Change door, gate, portal, entrance, exit, cottage, hut, cabin, palace, mansion, villa go up, rise, ascend, mount, climb
English has a rich store of vocabulary that originates in Ancient Greek and Latin and, more recently, in French. Greek gives English words like politics, telephone, ecology and drama, while Latin is rEnglish has a rich store of vocabulary that originates in Ancient Greek and Latin and, more recently, in French. Greek gives English words like politics, telephone, ecology and drama, while Latin is responsible for agriculture, family, order and ambulance. Words derived from French include disease, patrol, riot and basket. As a member of the Germanic family of languages, English clearly has numerous words of Germanic origin, examples being house, honey, half and hair. esponsible for agriculture, family, order and ambulance. Words derived from French include disease, patrol, riot and basket. As a member of the Germanic family of languages, English clearly has numerous words of Germanic origin, examples being house, honey, half and hair.
‘ Standard English ’ : Where did it start? Unit 2: Activity 3 – Tasks 1-3 (pp74-82) How and where did SE originate? Why was the 15 th century responsible for the rapid spread of the English language?
An important concept: Standard English is written English. –It has a grammatical system –It has a formal lexicon (vocabulary) –It is used internationally –It changes slowly –It has prestige
Some Definitions: Unit 2: Activity 3 – Task 4 (pp79-83) First printing press … Bi-dialectal means ……… Bilingual means ………
Some Definitions: ‘ First printing press ’ set up in 1475 by William Caxton Bi-dialectal means having two dialects Bilingual means having two languages
The English Lexicon: Unit 2: Activity 4 – Tasks 1-4 （ pp84-92) How large is English vocabulary? What is the difference between a ‘ receptive ’ and ‘ productive ’ vocabulary? What is the difference between a ‘ synonym ’ and an ‘ antonym ’ ? Class Discussion (10 minutes)
The English Lexicon: Some put the number as low as 50,000 and other as high as 250,000 words. Receptive vocabulary is the words you use for listening and reading. Productive vocabulary is the words you use for speaking and writing. A synonym is a word which means the same as another word. The antonym of a word is another word which means the opposite.
Received Pronunciation: What Is It? Unit 2: Activity 5 – Tasks 1-3 (pp92-98) What is ‘ RP ’ and how did it originate? Explain the difference between ‘ RP ’ and ‘ SE ’. Comparing ‘ RP ’ and ‘ SE ’, how might these change over time? Small group discussions (10 minutes
Received Pronunciation: A Definition ‘ Received Pronunciation ’ is a widely accepted English speaking accent which has prestige and is used as a model of good spoken English throughout the world. –BBC English –Educated English (post 19 th century)
Teaching And Learning : Unit 2: Activity 5 – Tasks 4 (pp98-99) Teaching Methodologies Productive Teaching Ability to Speak/Read Descriptive Teaching Learning Beyond Language Sustains student motivation Prescriptive Teaching Marking and Correcting
Review: Today we have: In Unit 1: Seen how language changes over time Understood how and why language varies by region Understood what is ‘ Standard English ’ Differentiated between ‘ dialects ’ and ‘ accents ’
In Unit 2: Reviewed and under-stood the historic origins of the English language Examined some words and their Latin origins Compared & understood the difference between ‘ SE ’ and ‘ RP ’ Established what our motivations are as learners of English
At the end of This Unit you should be able to do---or do better---the following give examples of national and international languages explain how it happened that English came to be widely used as a second language and some of the different ways in which it is used understand the advantages of invented languagesfor international use and some of the reasons for their failure explain the uses of this information to teathers and students of English
Unit Three The Spread of English Beyond Britain Difficult Points: ● The international role of standard English ● English and education in India ● The beginnings of Australia as a penal ● English as a global language for an information age
Activity 1 National Boundaries and National Attitudes
. Some distinctions between languages of different kinds. 1. Regional languages – languages used only in a restricted area. 2. National languages – languages used within national boundaries. 3. International languages – languages used outside national boundaries. 4. Global languages – languages used for communication world wide.
Task 1 Language attitude – how people feel about a language English is one of several international languages. Because there are only superficial differences in its written system worldwide, it is thus possible for it to have become the global language. There are very many languages in the world but English is predominant. How does this happen? It is necessary to look back into the history
Task 3 A language is not just an intellectual and rational matter, it is also an emotional issue. The Spanish Government tried to stamp out Basque between the years 1937 and the 1950s. They stopped its use in Education. Inscriptions were removed. Books in Basque were burnt. The two languages named in the bill before Parliament were Hindi and English. The crowd were demonstrating against the use of English.
Summary 11. English is one of several international languages, but it is the only language used worldwide, in places where there were never colonial settlements. 22. The fact that Standard English varies only in superficial ways in different places makes its global use possible. 33. Governments sometimes try to bring about language change deliberately. There is often angry resistance. 44. The reason for this is that people often feel a strong emotional bond with the language they learned as their mother tongue.
Task 1 Try to know the history of American.Pay attention to the spcial words,such as: New England, Mayflower, Puritan, Pilgrim Fathers.
1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sailed for the New World 1585 Sir Raleigh’s 2nd expedition to the New World 1590 The "Lost Colony" found abandoned 1620 English Puritan settlers left Plymouth in the Mayflower for the New World 1775 The American War of Independence started 1783 End of the War. USA set up 1790 1st census held in the USA. About 90% of the population are British descendants
Task 2 Try to know why American became “ melting pot ”. English is the official language of USA. 1. It is difficult for the first generation newcomers to America to learning a new language because they had to do other things at the same time, such as finding a job and finding a home. 2. Their children have advantage in learning English quickly and well because their children went to schools where lessons were in English.
Task 3 There are some differences of spelling in words between British and American English. Both are regarded as correct and acceptable.
Task 4 Pay attention to the words and phrases often used.such as automobile and car ， sidewalk and pavement 。
Summary 1. Between the early 17th century and the 18th century, the USA became the second English speaking nation, and is in the 20th century much more powerful and influential than the United Kingdom. 2. The English language had a special role in making a large population, from different parts of the world, into a single nation. 3. Although British English and American English are in some ways different, speakers of British English and American English understand without difficulty. This is also true of second language users who have learned from British and American teachers. 4. A more formal way of saying this is to say that British and American English are mutually intelligible.
Task 1 The Commonwealth of Nations – the colonies and the possessions that belonged to the British Empire. Try to understand the colonial history of the UK
EuropeAsiaAfricaNorth & South America Australi a United Kingdo m & Ireland India, Malaysi a, Borneo, New Guinea, Hong Kong Kenya, Rhodesi a, South Africa Canada USA Australi a, New Zealand
Task 2 The imperial past does explain why English has spread worldwide.
Task 3 & Task 4 了解印度和澳大利亚的历史，尤其是英语 的教育史。 重要词汇： East India Company, Persian, Sanskrit, the Committee of Public Instruction, aborigine, penal colony
Summary 1. The establishment of colonies and empire spread the use of English worldwide between the sixteenth century, and the first half of the twentieth century. 2. Every one of them began with exploration, but the circumstances in which colonies were settled were very different. 3. English remains very important in India after independence – but as a second language learned for a variety of purpose, including international purposes.
Activity 4 After Empire:English in Today ’ s world
Task 1 1. Numbers of populations are the basis for the numbers of users of English. 2. In the late 16th and early 17th century, when English was a national, but not an international language, the numbers are estimated at 5-7 million. 3. By the middle of the twentieth century, they were estimated at 250-350 million. 4. By the 1980 ’ s the estimates are between 700 and 1400 million. 5. The numbers seem to be increasing. 6. The total number of users of varieties of English is still much smaller than the total number of users of varieties of Chinese.
Task 2 Inner Circle – English is used as the mother tongue, like Britain, North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, etc. Outer Circle – English is widely taught in schools, like India, Hong Kong, Singapore, etc. Expanding Circle – English for international use, like China.
Task 3 There are some other usages of English, like listening to and enjoying pop music; watching English language films; international use of e-mail; reading; writing for an international readership, etc.
Task 4 Information Age means an explosion of information.
Summary 1. The number of users of a language is important, but who the users are, and what they do with English, is just as important. 2. The label Information Age is often given to the end of this century. 3. It means (1) that much more information is available than ever before; (2) that information can be stored and transferred in ways never possible before. 4. The most important language for communicative use at the time of these developments is English. Computer developments have reinforced the global importance of English.
Task 3 Esperanto – one of the most famous and successful invented languages.
Task 4 Considering What an Ideal Language for Global Use Would Be Like
Task 5 1. A revised version of Esperanto, published ten years after Esperanto, was called Ido. 2. A still simpler version of Ido called Novial was published in 1928. 3. A revised and simplified version of Latin, published in 1903 was called Interlingua. 4. All these artificial languages were based on Western European languages. Basic English – a simplified version of English, which was designed and published in 1930 by C. K. Ogden. Nuclear English – a different sort of simplification of English, which was created by Professor Randolph Quirk.
Summary 1. The world of the late 20th century needs an international language. 2. English is not ideally suited to international use. 3. No natural language can be politically and culturally neutral. An artificial language can be. 4. Artificial languages can be designed to be easily and quickly learned. They too have serious drawbacks and so do simplified versions of natural languages. 5. Although interest in Basic English is not high at present, a simplified version of English, perhaps Nuclear English offers promise for the future.
At the end of this unit,you should be able to do the following things,or do them better than you can now rrecognize what are statements about language,personal tastes or judgements about society and social differences kknow what is meant by social or educational variation in English accents rrecognize what different varieties you and other users control;how you increase their number and range,and howthe fact that the users can do this drives change
Unit Four Social varieties of English Difficult Points: Understanding the differences in use between initial and later stages of learning Contrasting spoken and written accounts of the some event English variations in formality
Activity 1 Differences of Prestige and Preference among Languages
Task 1 The idea of equality or parity among languages is important, and it needs to be carefully understood. No languages that we know about are underdeveloped or primitive. Languages change with time, as the needs of their users change, but change does not mean evolutionary progress. Languages and dialects are valued differently and used differently for historical, political, economic and cultural reasons.
Task 2 We use language as our main means of communication. Languages are like tools – they are made by human beings and used for human purposes. Languages change is like the process of biological evolution, and English is like a developed, complex animal, belonging to our own world.
Task 3 The view that English is better suited than other languages for global use is mistaken. Historical and economical developments have made English an international language: The idea that is better than other languages is a mistake arising from the use of metaphor.
Task 4 Languages are equal. Can we say that English is widely used because it is better fits in the international circumstances than other languages? It seems irrational to conclude so. The spread of it, as we covered before, was absolutely caused by political, economic and cultural factors instead of linguistic reasons.
Summary 1. The idea of equality or parity among languages is important, and it needs to be carefully understood. 2. No languages that we know about, are undeveloped or primitive. 3. Languages change with time, as the needs of their users change, but change does not mean evolutionary progress. 4. Languages and dialects are valued differently and used differently for historical, political, economic and cultural reasons.
Task 1 Pay attention to the varieties of English in time and regions.
Task 2 There is also social or educational variation of English. It could provide social information about the user.
Task 3 Applying This Knowledge to Practical Learning Problems
Task 4 Reading Two Stories about Changed Language and Changed Life
Summary 1. It is possible to learn to read the English of a past time. The further back in the past the more difficult it is and the longer it takes. 2. Most people don ’ t find learning to use another variety very easy, but some are very good at it. 3. A social variety is the sort of English use which is associated with a part of society, that is with rich or poor, well or poorly educated. 4. Social and regional varieties are connected. You can tell what region someone who uses the English of the poorer and the less well-educated comes from. The way the better-off use English tells you little or nothing about where that person was born.
Activity 3 An Expanding Range of Language Uses
Task 1 Recalling the Varieties of English within Your Own Experience
Task 2 There are 2 distinct stages in the study of a language. However, the stages are not clearly marked sometimes. The 1st stage is the study of sound system and grammar system of a language; while the 2nd is enlarging one’s vocabulary steadily. The formal learning will make the learners able to read and write. They get familiar with a variety, or the standard version of the language. The process is similar be it their mother tongue or a 2nd or additional language.
Task 3 Listing the Uses English Has for Advanced Users
Task 4 However, when learning English, we may notice that there do exist differences between speech and writing. Usually, spoken English takes longer time than written English to say the same thing. There would be pauses, repetitions, hesitations, etc. in a speech. But, as a rule, the writers try to say things in a brief, clear and coherent way. Also, there are different ways of expressing meanings on different occasions, such as formal and informal. (e.g. p.196)
Task 5 Core vocabulary – the first vocabulary to learn
Summary 1.English differs with the user, and also with the different uses that speakers have for English. 2.Learning about these differences belong to a 2nd stage of learning --- for native speakers and for users of English as an additional language. 3.Spoken English differs from written English. The topic, or subject, makes a difference to the way that English is used. English is used in different circumstances with different degrees of formality. 4.We have named 3 different ways in which English differs with use. They are similar to the regional and historical and social varieties we looked at earlier. They are however different in that they vary with use. They are available to all practised and experienced users. Or, user variation & use variation.
Activity 4 Use Variation and the International User of English
Task 1 English for the international users: standard English
Task 2 International users of English do not need to worry if they hesitate quite often in producing spoken English. Good writers write for groups of readers, which helps you write clearly and tells you when something you read is well written.
Task 3 Spoken English is thought about and exchanged by people who can hear each other and (usually) see each other, so users show know – 1. it is the work of two or more speakers who are also listeners. 2. they can remind each other, interrupt each other, ask and answer questions. 3. they need not keep to a single point. They can ramble away and come back to it. 4. they can hesitate as they think what to say and how to say it. 5. they can leave things out if everyone knows about them. 6. they can use words including slang that are known to those talking but may not be known to everyone.
Writers and readers of English need to remember – 1. Written English is (usually) the work of just one person for many readers. 2. Writers know something, but not much, about their readers. 3. Written English may be read a long time after it is written, so readers can ’ t interrupt the writer. 4. Writers have to think about what readers need to know and say all of it. 5. Writers have to arrange what they say in the best order – that is the easiest for the reader to understand. 6. Writers have to be careful not to delay or puzzle or annoy readers. That is why they avoid slang and any other ways of using English vocabulary that readers have learned not to expect in writing. 7. Language changes in this as in other respects. Present day writing is generally nearer speech than it was in the past.
Task 4 1. English varies with the topic or subject that is spoken about or written about. This is true of academic subjects and of others, not usually studied in schools and universities. 2. This is partly a matter of the special vocabulary that students learn as part of learning about the subject. 3. It is partly a matter of style – and that means avoiding words and phrases which are acceptable only within the family, or among close friends, or in light-hearted contexts. 4. Style has to be consistent – not uneven. Competent writers and speakers avoid mixing some words that are suitable for serious contexts and those that are not.
The differences between spoken and written English Spoken Written 1. The work between 2 or more people who are both speakers & listeners. 2. There is reminding, interrupting, hesitation, asking and answering questions in the process. 3. Not keep to a single point and things known to the speakers may be left out. 4. Slang or words known to people involved in the talk may be used
1. The work of one person for many readers. 2. May be read a long time after it is written. 3. No interruption between the writer & the readers. 4. About what the writer thinks the readers need to know and say all about it. 5. Arranged in best order for readers to comprehend. 6. Is put clearly to avoid confusion or puzzlement on the readers side. 7. Is changing as in other respects, and generally nearer speech than it was before
When you have completed the Activities of this Unit you should be able to Define what is meant by pidgin,creloe,and lingua franca and give examples Understand what is meant by creativity or inventiveness in language Recognize the importance of faxed English to international trade proceedings Use this information in discussions of the present position of English as the major language of international business
Unit Five Trade within and Across Language Barriers Difficult Points: Differences among varieties, pidgins, creoles How English is used in some areas of international trade Differences between the practice and the teaching of business English
Task 1 Barter – exchange of goods for goods The most effective and convenient means of communication is a language understood and used by both buyer and seller.
Task 2 The components of a trade deal (transaction): 1. commodity; 2. a currency; 3. seller; 4. buyer; 5. market; 6. a means of communication.
Task 3 PPay attention to the difference in negotiation or bargaining between China and Britain. The most commonly used language of international trade between Asia and other parts of the world is English.
Summary 1. Trading is a fundamental human activity, necessary to all except the most undeveloped societies. 2. Trade deals, large or small, have similar components. 3. Communication is essential to all trade deals. The most satisfactory means of communication is a language equally well known to the buyer and the seller. 4. It is possible to arrange to do some deals with minimal language, but hardly possible to do without it altogether. 5. English is currently the most commonly used language of international deals between Asian and other countries. This situation may change in the future.
Activity 2 Communicating Somehow across Language Barriers
Task 1 Examining Situations Where Survival Depends on Trade
Task 2 Lingua Franca – makeshift languages 即族际通用语，各自说不同语言的人群所 用于交际的语言，族际通用语或者是一种 国际通用的交际语言（如英语），或者是 其中一个群体的本族语，或者不是任何群 体的本族语，而是句子结构和词汇简单的 一种语言，通常是两种或更多语言的组合。
Task 3 Pidgin – a makeshift language used only for purposes of trade.
Summary 1. Pidgins are languages for a very narrow range of purposes – those that have to do with coastal trade. 2. Pidgins develop wherever traders want to do business (a) with people with whom they do not share a common language and (b) where there is no lingua franca for them to use. 3. Most pidgins are mixtures of Asian or African languages and those of major European trading nations – Spain and Portugal, Holland, France and Germany, and Britain. 4. In general the sound and grammatical systems of a pidgin are those of the language used locally: The vocabulary is supplied by the voyagers.
5. Pidgins were not as a rule written down; they changed rapidly, they were quickly learned by those who needed them, and when trading stopped they were discarded and soon forgotten. There must have been many pidgins of which we have no record. 6. They are makeshift languages, and evidence of human inventiveness. 7. They have very low prestige. Users of the language that provides the vocabulary hear them as fumbling attempts to speak as they do! People of every race tend to think of foreigners as childish, and the use of pidgins tends to strengthen or reinforce, that idea.
Task 1 Creole – a pidgin is unstable, and when people make use of it they extend the number of functions it can have, so the pidgin rapidly become a language, and the resulting language is called Creole, a French-based or Portuguese-based or English-based Creole. The process is called creolisation. Macanese – a Creole established in Macau.
Task 2 Pay attention to P.232 The young black women learned something very like a pidgin, but they taught their babies a Creole, and now Black English is no longer a Creole. It is a variety of English with some creolised features. It has low prestige.
Task 3 A pidgin could not be a national language, but a Creole could, because it is a language. Tok Pisin is the official language of Papua New Guinea.
Task 4 Summarizing the Defferent among Varieties,Pidgins,Creoles
Summary 11. Differences between a pidgin and a Creole. A pidgin, but not a Creole, has only some of the functions of language. 22. Ways in which pidgins and Creoles are similar. Pidgins and Creoles are both mixed languages – usually mixtures of languages belonging to different families. 33. What is meant by saying that English has some creolised features? Some varieties of English include some but not all the features of a Creole.
44. Why do speakers of varieties of English that have creolised features sometimes have difficulties in an English-using educational system? Their difficulties arise from the differences between their mother tongues and the Standard English used in schools. (You can add that some teachers see the creolised features as simply careless mistakes.) 55. Give an example of a Creole currently used as a national language. Tok Pisin is a Creole, with English and German vocabulary, currently in use as a national language.
Activity 4 English in Contemporary International Trade
Task 1 Examining Stable and Changed Aspects of Trade Practice
Task 2 Modern international trade involves international banking, national and international regulation and bilingual merchandisers with access to fax machines in addition.
Task 3 The practice and the teaching of Business English are different.
Activity 5 Faxed English for International Business
Task 1 Advantages of faxed messages: 1. They are fast; 2. They can be sent at any time; 3. There is a written record; 4. They are easy to write and easy to read; 5. Drawings and diagrams can be faxed.
Task 2 Pay attention to the differences between Faxed English and Standard English
Task 3 Faxed Business English depends on much shared knowledge between the sender and receiver of the message. It can be shorter than the same meanings in Standard English. It makes much use of abbreviations. Headings signal changes of topic. Not a word is wasted. Nobody thinks this shortness and directness is rude or abrupt. Errors which a teacher would correct are just ignored.
Summary 11. Faxed English is a major means of communication in international business. 22. At present it is learned on the job, rather than deliberately taught. 33. It works well for several reasons: 11). Users are highly motivated to make it work. Their livelihoods depend on it. 22). Users have what is needed – detailed knowledge of the context, which increases as they gain experience. 33). Users for whom English is an additional language find it easy to use because mistakes are expected and ignored, not criticized. It is informal. Nobody expects or wants polite indirectness. Headings show changes of subject, and abbreviations make it brief.
At the end of this unit,you should be able to do the following things,or do them better than you can now explain what is meant by saying that English is currently the language of science---even though much science is done using other languages recognize and describe a range of styles of English that are used for the purposes outlined above
Unit Six Changing English since the Second World War Difficult Points: How English serves the purposes of science How TV promotes the global use of English Discovering the dominant role of English in information storage, retrieval, and exchange
Activity 1 English as the Language of International Science
Task 1 Science and technology cannot do without symbolic systems. Languages are symbolic systems.
Task 2 Major scientific and technological achievement is the achievement of an English speaking nation – the U.S.
Task 3 English is suitable to a great variety of scientific and technological purposes: 11. It has a vast vocabulary and all sorts of ways of extending that vocabulary to meet changing needs. 22. It lets you write in a very impersonal way, because it can be detached and unemotional. 33. It is accessible, that is, you can learn English through education.
Summary Why science needs an international language 1. Science has developed very fast in the last half century. 2. By the mid-century English was already established as an international language. 3. Its position no longer depended on Britain ’ s imperial power and was able to survive its decline.
What Scientific English is like 1. It is difficult for the ordinary user of English. 2. Writers assume large areas of shared knowledge 3. The style is remote and impersonal. 4. The topics of the sentences are very often abstract. 5. The passive voice is used very frequently. 6. The style makes readers feel they are looked down on by the writer. 7. The writer feels he is treating his readers as colleagues and equals.
Activity 2 Uses of English in International Transport
Task 1 The most important contribution that English makes to international air safety is in reducing ambiguity.
Task 2 Shared mother tongue and shared culture and knowledge reduce misunderstandings, but do not prevent them.
Task 3 English is used as an international language in international air travel.
Task 4 The language of Air Traffic Control is a variety out of the working practices of the people engaged in it. All statements, and all directions are short, direct, and clear. The vocabulary in use is narrow. The English is a very much reduced and stereotyped English.
The English of International Air Traffic Control: 1. The language of International Air Control is English. 2. It is used by all ground control staff and flight crew. 3. It is used in all parts of the world. 4. It is twentieth century English: It is Standard English. 5. It is spoken English and speakers know what they say will be recorded. 6. It is the English of a special area of knowledge. 7. It is formal, but not polite or indirect. 8. It is brief, clear and direct.
OOther varieties designed to avoid ambiguity: SSea-speak – a special restricted variety of English used internationally in ship-to-shore communication. JJargon – the selection of language that people who have a common interest in machines and techniques use. AArgot – the special language of thieves. SSlang – the language used by young people to keep out the old.
Summary 1.In everyday English, mistakes and misunderstandings happen all the time. They don ’ t usually matter. 2. Misunderstandings are very dangerous in the air. 3. The language of Air Traffic Control is designed to avoid any misunderstanding and ambiguity. 4. It is brief, direct, and can be learned quickly. 5. Sea-speak and Police-speak are similar. Jargon, argot and slang are also designed by and for very special groups of users.
Activity 3 Applications of Technology to Entertainment
Task 1 Understanding the Contribution of Technology to More Enjoyable Leisure for More People
Task 2 Television promotes English as a global language in two ways – informal exposure to English and formal education on TV.
Task 3 Edutainment – education and entertainment together.
Summary 11. Television became generally available after the Second World War. 22. Many people thought television would make the quality of people ’ s lives poorer, but it soon became hugely popular activity. 33. It is available now in the developed and developing world, and in some very remote places. 44. It tends to break down the barriers between races and cultures. 55. Everything that makes television varied, absorbing and fun, makes it a good means for people to learn.
Activity 4 Developments in Information Technology Reinforce the International Role of English
Task 1 1. The end of the 20 th century is often called the age of rapid communications or the age of information technology. 2. IT has already many applications to everyday life, and their number increases all the time. 3. Very few people foresaw present developments twenty years ago. 4. One effect of the development of IT has been to reinforce and extend the position of English as an international language. Know the history of computer
Task 2 There are some everyday, non- specialist uses of the computer.
Task 3 85% of the world ’ s e-mail is exchanged in English. 1. IT lets you store, retrieve, and transfer information. 2. Such collections are called database. 3. It makes possible very much larger collections and much quicker retrieval of items of information when these are needed. 4. At present English dominates the making of the databases and the processes of retrieval and transfer.
Summary 1. The end of the 20 th century is often called the Age of Rapid Communications or the Age of Information Technology. 2. IT has already many applications to everyday life, and their number increases all the time. Very few people foresaw present developments twenty years ago. 3. The development of IT has reinforced and extended the position of English as an international language. 4. IT lets you store, retrieve, and transfer information. Such collections are called databases. 5. IT makes possible very much larger collections and much quicker retrieval of items of information when these are needed. At present English dominates databases. The position of English could change as the technology develops.
Activity 5 Meeting the Worldwide Demand for ELT
Task 1 ELT – English language teaching Developments in (1) science and technology, (2) travel and transport, (3) entertainment and (4) the storage, retrieval and transfer of information, since they were heavily dependent on the global use of English, hugely increased demand for opportunities to learn the language, both for children and adults.
AdvantagesLimitations Native-speaker EL teacher Has native fluencyMay have limited understanding of difficulties Has extensive vocabularyUsually gives explanations in English At once perceives mistakesMay not understand students ’ or parents ’ expectations Bilingual teacher Has a close understanding of learners ’ May not offer a good model of pronunciation Can offer explanations in learners ’ language Has a limited vocabulary Understands learners ’ expectations May not perceive errors made by learners Understand the school system
Task 2 Technology cannot only assist the bilingual teacher by providing native speakers as models of pronunciation for example, and it can almost replace the teacher.
Task 3 Three things have contributed to the development of ELT from an occupation to an academic profession since the Second World War: 1. The great strides in linguistics provided a theoretical framework for the profession of ELT. 2. New institutions were set up, notably the British Council. 3. University departments were set up, which served to focus research, and to offer training of a good standard and at a variety of levels.
Pattern practice – learning by constantly repeating correct English sentences. Language laboratory – a classroom equipped with tape recorders and a control desk for the teacher. Communicative approach – a view of ELT that puts first understanding and being understood by another person. Error analysis – teaching in the belief that mistakes are necessary to learning and useful to teachers. English for Specific Purposes – courses designed to match the future work of and needs of groups of learners, very often groups with different occupations.
Summary 1. In the last fifty years the increased importance of English as a global language has led to an increased demand for English Language Teaching. 2. Very large numbers of teachers are needed. Most students must be taught by teachers who are not native speakers. 3. Native speakers and bilingual teachers have different strengths and limitations. 4. Technology provides useful assistance for teachers and replaces teachers in some circumstances. 5. In the last fifty years ELT has developed as an academic profession. There are a number of different approaches and methodologies to match increasingly varied needs.
When you have completed the activities of this unit you will: Understand the current,and at present unresolved,debate about whether local standards are varieties,requiring recognition,or are essentially,inter- languages Know how this debate bears on a number questions about: (1) the purpose which learners have for an additionalor auxiliary language
(2)the practicalities of teaching an auxiliary language to every large numbers of learners (3) the role of Standard English a norm, and as a target Understand why the position of Standard English is controversial, complicated, important and,almost certainly,important to you
Unit Seven Emerging “ New Englishes ” : A Focus for Debate Difficult Points: Exam the significance of New Standards Find out about international literature in English Contrast roles of English feedback in mono-lingual and in multi-lingual societies
Activity 1 What Is Meant by Emerging and New Englishes?
Task 1 English is studied, learned and taught in all three circles, but not in the same way.
TermAbb.Official Language?Chances of informal learning? English as a mother tongue E1L Yes, for virtually all purposes; taught in schools; medium of learning Yes, everywher e in the environme nt English as a Second Languag e ES L Yes, one of several; taught in schools; medium of some learning Yes, some English as a Foreign Languag e EFL Not taught in schools; not usually a learning medium No, only in the classroom
Varieties of English are varieties in use and user.
Task 2 Emerging Englishes or New Englishes are not just regional varieties.
Task 3 1. Where local written standards are emerging in use, the question of local or international standards may arise. 2. The advantages of teaching a local standard are: a. They are easier and quicker to learn. b. There are useful where there are many languages in use in a country and no common language. c. Only a minority of people need a language for international use. 3. The disadvantages of teaching a local standard are: a. Local standards change quickly and are not well regarded internationally. b. If they are used internationally, they don ’ t do justice to the user or his ideas. c. Local Standards are emerging and changing, so there may not be enough suitable teachers, or teaching materials.
4. The advantages of teaching Standard English are: a. Standard English is stable and has prestige worldwide. b. It opens up an immense quantity of literature on all topics and, increasingly, it makes electronically stored material available. 5. The disadvantages of teaching Standard English are: a. It may take longer to learn than a local standard. b. Fewer people will succeed. 6. Standard English offers much in return to those who do, and is the best choice except where the need for a common language has to come before everything else. That is not the case in Hong Kong.
Summary 1. The international use of English means that there can be an international literature written in one part of the English-using world, and available everywhere that English is used. 2. New Englishes developed and produced in one region but widely understood, have a role in this literature. They can make possible an imaginative understanding of what it is like to live in that place and to share its culture. 3. Anyone who has English as an additional language can have an English voice in addition to the voice that belongs to the mother tongue and its culture. 4. That user can now reach very scattered, varied and distant readers. It is much easier to do this than most people think – provided you are not too ambitious at the start.
Task 1 An authoritative statement is one that is complete, considerate, and based on extensive and detailed knowledge.
Task 2 There is a major debate in the study of English language between Sir Randolph Quirk and Braj Kachru. See the form of Page 343 ， try to understand deficit view and liberation view.
The Quirk view is that the term Standard English applies only to Standard British and American English. This Standard is what learners of English as an international language want to learn, and this is what should be taught. Teachers who are not native speakers need to keep in constant touch with this Standard. They should correct their students when differences from this Standard appear in their writing. That is what students expect and want. It is the only way they can move steadily nearer their goal, which is internationally acceptable English.
The Kachru view is that New Englishes are now developing in parts of the world where the most important use of English is for communication in multi- lingual communities. Each has its own standard, that could and should be the English taught in schools. These new Standards are different from Standard British and American English. They are easier, quicker and cheaper for people in those countries to learn. They should be taught in schools, by local teachers. They should be respected as Emerging Standards. They ’ re not evidence that the educational systems are failing their students.
Task 3 Loaded words – words that have too much meaning.
Task 4 In multi-lingual societies, New Englishes are emerging and the question whether they should be taught in schools and used for government and official purposes is a real question. In mono-lingual societies, there is no need of English for internal use.
Summary 1. Emerging Englishes, having their own Standards, and different from those of Standard British or American English are the subject of continuing debate. 2. The debate is represented by two major statements of opposing views, one by Professor Randolph Quirk, one by Braj Kachru.
3. Some major questions are these: a. Should new Standards be taught and learned and so become recognized and official? b. Can they have similar status and prestige to Standard British and American English? c. What sort of knowledge of English should teachers have? d. Are different targets suitable for different learners? e. How should teachers treat the errors in Standard British and American English that appear in learners ’ written work? f. How far can we know in advance what use learners will make in future of the English they learn?
Task 1 Appreciating in General Terms Some Practical Applications of Academic Debate
Task 2 The advantages of Standard English are: 1. Standard English is internationally used. 2. Regional varieties are only superficial difference. 3. It can be pronounced in a variety of accents. 4. It is fully and well described. 5. It is a variety with excellent teaching / learning materials. There are three results of linguistic creativity: pidgins, Creoles, interlanguages.
Task 3 An opportunity cost – Language learning represents a big investment of time and effort by individuals and by the society of which they are part.
Summary 1. High level academic debate can and should inform policy making. 2. In this debate both sides are concerned about satisfactory learning experience. 3. All learning is associated with an opportunity cost.
At the end of this unit,you should be able to do summarize,in English,what you have gained from studying this course frame what seem to you the most interesting questions about the present and immediate future role of English suggest some probable directions of development and some areas where the importance of English shows signs of diminishing appreciate views on these topics differing from your own
Unit Eight English in a Shrinking World Difficult Points: English is a beautiful language
Activity 1 A Shinkingr World---Whose World Task 1 The world is shrinking.
Task 2 Babel – a loud confused noise. The Tower of Babel shows that people living at that time thought that a common language is needed for a common task.
Task 3 Being young and having educational opportunities are other kinds of wealth and privilege.
Task 4 1. Some ideas associated with recent developments in communication have a very long history. 2. Rapid communication, and everything that it makes possible, is unevenly distributed. 3. Most of what its development offers is available to rich and privileged individuals and societies. 4. The number of those who have access to at least some sorts of rapid communication is increasing all the time. 5. The development of rapid communication brings benefits, but it creates problems and difficulties too.
Task 1 Reflecting on the Question:Is There a Linguistic Expaination for the Present Position of English?
Task 2 11. English is well suited to international use because it allows you access to a fine culture. 22. (a) If you know English you can read the great English writers of the past and not in translation. (b) If you know English you can read scientific and technical writing on a great range of subjects. (c) If you know English you get at most of the material which is electronically stored. 33. The more unlike the learners ’ mother tongue English is, then the harder in general it is to learn, and the longer the learning takes, which means the higher the opportunity cost is. The idea that English is beautiful is an expression of individual taste.
Task 3 1. English is sometimes thought to be an especially suitable language for international use on linguistic grounds. The three reasons are: a. It is easier than other languages to learn; b. It is musical and exact enough to make people want to learn it; c. It opens up an especially rich and various culture. 2. English is seen as a threat to a national language and so to something of value to national identity. 3. By cultural imperialism is meant the spread to other places of products and cultural ideas that are associated with English.
Task 1 Applying Your Information to Weighing the Costs of Languages Study
Task 2 Using the Knowledge You Have to Map Your Own Language Repertoire
Task 3 Using Your Information to Estimate How Good Your Auditory Memory Is
Task 4 We shall look at how information about English can assist reasonable decision making about targets and goals.
Summary 1. We need to distinguish between becoming more proficient in English, and knowing more about English. The beginning and intermediate stages of learning are rightly concerned almost entirely with the first. Advanced courses may be concerned with both at the same time. 2. Knowing about English gives you a different, and broader, perspective on language, on the learning process, and on a wide range of topics and activities. 3. If you have information about language and the language learning process, you can make principled decisions on a number of language- related subjects, and you can, if you need to, defend those decisions. This is not important for everyone, but it is important for those concerned with educational decision making, with international business and communication, with international academic exchange.
Task 1 One of the effects of being informed about English is that you become realistic about what your targets and goals should be.
Task 2 Estimating Your Own Present Standing as a User of International English
Task 3 The course of English in a Changing World is about what change in language means, which special reference to English. It shows that English is an abstraction from the reality and the reality is many varieties, regional, historical, social, and much variation too with use. Of these varieties, Standard English is of special importance. Its relative stability makes the global uses of English possible. That is itself subject to change and even now, is a subject for disagreement and debate. Pay attention to Page 403 tips
Task 4 1. Information about English, and proficiency in English, support and reinforce each other at advanced stages of learning. Information about English enables you: a. to access accurately situations in which communication is difficult; b. to set realistic targets, that can actually be attained within the limits of time available for yourself and for other people; c. to frame specific goals that enable you to make good use of opportunities.
2. Revision of what you have learned is obviously necessary for exams, but if you are a serious student not taking an exam you need to review and consolidate what you have learned. 3. Traditional ways of studying for exams are effective and necessary. There are alternatives. These are illustrated. Many people find them useful and by varying your approach to revision you can put in more time with less fatigue.
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