CountryArea under organic (mha)% to the total area Australia122.88 Argentina4.393.31 USA1.940.60 China1.850.34 Brazil1.760.67 Spain1.335.35 India1.180.66 Organic Farming World Scenario Cont…
1.4 million organic producers 26 m ha area under organic farming Oceania, Europe and Latin America largest organic producing continents Australia, Argentina and USA are countries with largest area NCOF, 2010
Global Organic Food Market 50.9 billion US$ (2010) Doubled in 7 years (25 billion US$ in 2003) Demand mainly in North America and Europe (97%) Asia, Latin America and Austraia are main producers Global Organic Market Access programmed by IFOAM working for equivalence and harmonization IFOAM, 2010
Growing Organic in India Grown 25 fold in last seven years It is a combined effect of farmers’ efforts, NGOs work, Govt. interventions and market forces push Producing wide range of commodities Developing domestic market Growing awareness for safe and healthy contamination free food
Quality Assurance India has internally acclaimed certification system both for export and domestic 20 certification bodies to choose from A new farmer group centric certification system known as Participatory Guarantee System on the anvil
Organic Statistics at a Glance in India Total organic area> 1,08,650 ha Total projects2099 No of Grower groups 919 Total organic farmers 548,045 Total certified production17.11 lac tones Number of processors 427 Total export58,408 t Value of export in Rs. 5254.9 million Number of exporters299 NCOF, 2010
General agriculture profile (Himachal Pradesh) Total Geographical Area55.67 lac ha. Total Cropped Area9.56 lac ha. Net Area Sown5.49 lac ha. (10%) Culturable Waste Lands1.22 lac ha Organic land15,291.01 ha Operational Holdings9.14 lacs Number of Farmers8.63 lacs Average Holding Size1.1 ha. Net Irrigated Area18.76% (1,04,027 ha.) Small & Marginal Farmers85% Annual Avg. Rainfall1150 mm RANA, 2010
What is Organic Farming ? According to Lampkin (1990 ) Production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, growth regulators and live stock feed additives. According to US Department of Agriculture “A system that is designed and mailed to produce the agricultural products by the use of methods, and substances that maintain the integrity of organic agricultural products until they reach the consumer”. According to Funtilana (1990) “Organic Farming is giving back to the nature what is taken from it”.
OrganicConventional Size Relatively small-scale, independent operations (eg: the family farm)family farm Large-scale, often owned by or economically tied to major food corporations Methods Low use of purchased fertilizers and other inputs and low mechanization of growing and harvesting processmechanization Intensive chemical programs and mechanized production, using specialized equipment and facilities MarketsMostly local, direct to consumer, through on-farm stands and farmers markets ( local food)local food Wholesale, with products distributed across huge territories (average supermarket produce travels hundreds to thousands of miles) supermarket The differences between organic farming and modern conventional farming
Deleterious effects of chemicals Every year 5.33 million tonnes of soil erodes in India and with it 53.3 lakh tonnes of NPK flows away. Pesticide and other chemical residues have led cancer and reduced bodily immunity. Immense commercialization of agriculture has negative effect on environment. Use of pesticides has led to chemical buildup in our environment, in soil, water, air, in animals and even in our own bodies.
Fertilizers have short-term effect on productivity. Longer-term negative effect on the environment. Remain for years after leaching and running off contaminating ground water and water bodies. Use of hybrid seeds, GMO and the practice of monoculture have led to a severe threat to local and indigenous varieties.
Pesticides commonly found in our food International Development Research Centre (Ottawa) has claimed that about 10000 people die every year and another 4,00,000 suffer from various effects of pesticide poisoning in the developing countries. Farm laborers employed for spraying operations are the worst affected. Case of blindness, cancer deformities, diseases of liver and nervous system from pesticide poisoning.
CountryConsumption (kg ha -1 ) Costa Rica51.2 Columbia16.7 Ecuador9.4 Portugal6 India0.55 Table: Average consumption of pesticides in different countries www.nationmaster.com
Why organic farming is necessary Imbalance in production Dependency on synthetic chemical fertilizers Increase in secondary & micronutrient deficiencies Increase in pesticide use Unscientific water management and distribution Reduction in productivity Reduction in quality of the produce Extinction of gene pool Environmental pollution Imbalance in social and economic status
Nutritional attributes Conventionally grown fruit & vegetables have ten time less mineral contents than the organically grown. Organically grown apple are having higher qualities (taste score, sugar-acidity, firmness, nutritional fiber contents & vitality index). Organically grown oranges contained 30% more vitamin C
BIOFERTILIZERS: AN ECOFRIENDLY WAY TO REPLACE CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS What is biofertilizer? A number of micro-organisms (bacteria fungi and algae) are considered as beneficial for agriculture and used as biofertilizers. Microbes used as Biofertilizer 1.Rhizobia 2.Azorhizobium 3.Bradyrhizobium
Azotobacter Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Aulosira, Lyngbya etc. Azolla – Anabaena symbiosis Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megatherium var. phosphaticum, Acrobacter acrogens, nitrobacter spp., Escherichia freundii, Serratia spp., Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus polymyxa are the bacteria have phosphate solubilising ability.
Phosphate solubilizing fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium digitatum etc. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescence. Serratia spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. Mycorrhiza VAM fungi or Endomycorrhiza
Benefits of Organic Farming Helps in maintaining environment Reduces human and animal health hazards. Helps in keeping agricultural production at a higher level and makes it sustainable. Reduces the cost of agricultural production and improves the soil health.
Ensures optimum utilization of natural resources for short term benefit and conserving them for future generation. Saves energy for both animal and machine. Reduces risk of crop failure. Protects the wildlife (birds, insects etc.). Gives better quality products with good taste and better storage properties.
SUSTAINABILITY AIMS THREE DIMENTIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY ECOLOGICAL AIMS SOCIAL AIMS ECONOMIC AIMS ECO SYSTEM BALANCE NO CHEMICAL POLLUTION HIGH SOIL FERTILITY CLEAN WATER BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ANIMAL FRIENDLY HUSBANDRY CONSURVE NATURAL RESOURCES LOW INVESTMENT GOOD & CONSTANT YIELD LOW EXTERNAL INPUTS MAKE BEST USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES ECONOMIC SECURITY ECONOMICALLY VIABLE ADDED VALUE GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS Fair trade ENSURE FOOD SUPPLY Satisfy local needs RESPECT TO LOCAL CULTURE SAFE, GOOD TASTE & QUALITY
Technology packages for Organic Vegetables Timely preparation of soil to a fine tilth with 2-3 ploughings to remove all debris, stubbles, stones etc and to avoid infestation of ants and termites. Minimum tillage Organic manures as basal dose @ 25-38 t/ha. Organic cakes from neem, groundnut, pongamia, and castor. Raising of green manure crops like sesbania or dhancha and incorporating into the soil, besides using biomass of other plant species.
Use of crop residues in organic vegetable production. Include legume crop like beans, peas, cowpea etc in the crop rotation. It not only improve the soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen but also increase the yield upto 30-35%. Choice of vegetable varieties Adopting optimum spacing and timely planting.
Application of bio-fertilizer Use of locally available mulching materials or polythene sheets to reduce moisture loss and minimum weed growth. Use disease resistant varieties that suit the eco-system. Removing all infested parts with pests and diseases. Use of resistant/tolerant varieties. Use bio-pesticides and bio-control methods
Raising trap plant to attract insects and to follow crop rotation. For example; cabbage head borer- trap plant as mustard Potato/Chilli/ tomato rotated with cereals, oilseeds Garlic extract are used as broad-spectrum pesticides. Neem, Sabadilla, and Pyrethrum extracts as pesticides Bio-fertilizers like Azotobacter, Azospirillum, PSM Crop inoculated with Mycorrhizal fungi exhibits increase resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum.
Techniques, practices and Specialized forms of Organic Farming
Bio-fertilizersCrop Increase in yield (%) Nitrogen economy (%) References RhizobiumCowpea4.09-Mishra & Solanki (1996) Pea13.38-Kanaujia et al (1999) Pea5.10-Choudhury et al (1982) AzotobacterCabbage24.3025Verma et al (1997) Cabbage26.45-Lehri & Malhotra (1972) Garlic14.2325Anonymous (2003) Garlic14.8025Wange (1995) Knol khol9.6025Chatto et al (1997) Onion18.00-Joi & Shinda (1976) Tomato13.6050Kumaraswamy (1990) AzospirillumCabbage7.0025Jeeva Jothi et al (1993) Cabbage11.8725Verma et al (1997 Capsicum9.9825 Chilli26.7025Paramguru & Natrajan ( 1993) Chilli15.1025Deka et al (1996) Onion9.6025Thiiackavathy & Ramaswamy (1999) Knolkhol14.9025 Chatto et al (1997) Onion6.2025Gurubatham et al (1989) Onion21.6825Anonymous (2002) Garlic6.4225Anonymous (2003) Okra9.0025Subbiah (1991) Radish9.00-Sundaravelu & Mutukrishna (1993) Sweet potato8.50-Desmond et al (1990) Table. 8 Response of Vegetable crops to Bio-fertilizer inoculations (for nitrogen)
Bio-fertilizerCropIncrease in yield (%) Phosphorus economy (%) References PSMGarlic14.2325Anonymous (2003) Onion9.6025Thiiakavathy & Ramaswamy (1999) Potato30.50-Gaur (1985) Pumpkin51.0025Karuthamani et al (1995) VAMChilli14.29-Biswas et al (1994) Onion4.7025Gurubatham et al (1989) Potato20.00-Biswas et al (1994) Table : Response of Vegetable crops to Bio-fertilizer inoculations (for phosphorus)
PestBiological control agent AphidsLacewing and ladybird beetle larvae, parasitic wasps CaterpillarsParasitic wasps, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Toxin MitesPredatory mites Slugs Nematodes WhiteflyParasitic wasps Table : Biological control agents
Botanical pesticide SourceNature of the product Against which pests AllicinGarlicBroad spectrum Act as antibacterial & antifungal biopesticide Nicotine Sulphate TobaccoInsecticidesAphids, thrips, spider, mites & other sucking insects SabadillaSabadilla lilyInsecticidesCaterpillars, leaf hoppers, thrips, sink bug and squash bugs NemacideNeem treeInsecticidesPotato beetle, grass hopper, moth PyrethrumChrysanthem um Insecticides Aphids and ectoparasites of live stocks Table: Natural or Botanical pesticides
Crops Year wise Label 1st year2nd year3rd year4th year AnnualNo label In Conversion to Organic Agriculture Certified Organic PerennialsNo label In Conversion to Organic Agriculture In Conversion to Organic Agriculture Certified Organic INDOCERT label the products as organic as follows : India’s first ever local Organic Certification Body, INDOCERT (Indian Organic Certification Agency), was established in March, 2002 with an objective to offer a reliable and affordable organic inspection and certification services to farmers, processors, input suppliers and traders.
S.NoName of the organizationAddress 1.NAVDANAYA TrustA-60, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. 2.Devine Agro Industries Ltd.C-9, Anoop Nagar, Uttam Nagar, New Delhi-110059 3.DevbhoomiRajput Road, Dehradun, Uttaranchal 4.Back to NatureNear Kanak Cinema, Dehradun, Uttaranchal 5.Mahrishi Ved Vigyan VidyapeethDunda (Kunshi), Uttar Kashi 6. Institute of Rural Development (IIRD) 54A, Kanchan Nagar, Nakshetrawadi, Aurangabad 413002 7.ISCON TempleBangalore 8.FAB India Overseas Pvt. Ltd.B-26, Okhla Industries Area, Phase I, New Delhi 9.ECO-Nut Health Food Shop J’s Heritage Complex, Opp. Milk Union, P.T. Road, Kodai Kanal-624101 10.Sresta By-products Pvt. Ltd. 203, Pavani Annexes, Road No. 2, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500 034, AP 11.IOCCA 951C, 15 th Cross, 8 th Main, Ideal Home Township, Raja Rajeswari Nagar, Bangalore-560 098 12.D.R. Agro Organic AS 01,, Sai Nagar, Ratnagiri, Kapadganj-387620, Gujarat 13.Sunstar Overseas Ltd. 40 K.M. Stone, G.T. Karnal Road, Bahalgarh, Sonepat, Haryana 14.IITC Organic India Ltd.A-306, Indira Nagar, Lucknow-227 105 Source: Bhattacharya and Chakraborty (2010) Table : Some agencies involved in domestic marketing of organic produce in India
Organic farming in hilly states of India NCF has also identified organic farming as an important tool for second green revolution in the rainfed and hilly areas of the country. Several states in the country have already promoted programmes on organic farming. In NEH region, Mizoram and Sikkim have declared their intensions to shift towards total organic farming.
The NEH region has the unique opportunity to promote organic production of vegetable crops because of the farmers in this region are most responsive to organic agriculture by their tradition and do not use chemicals and are therefore organic by default. Such pockets are spread through out the entire hill agriculture. They will be more inclined to transform the traditional agriculture to organic agriculture because they are not exposed to chemical agriculture. The Sikkim government has ambitious plans to make the state fully organic by 2015 and make it a hotspot for organic products, according to state Agriculture Minister D N. Takarpa.
The Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB), was registered under the Societies Act in May, 2003. A project called Center for Organic Farming (COF), "Himotthan Pariyojna", funded by the Sir Ratan Tata Trust was anchored with in the Board for providing technical and marketing expertise for product development, supply chain management, market linkages, certification etc. Initially, a pilot programme of demonstration of certain technologies was taken up in 16 villages of Uttarakhand. Later, it was expanded to 212 villages. Presently, 1,200 bio villages are covered under the organic programme and 20,000 farmers have been sensitized.
Prevailing traditional farming system Rich indigenous knowledge base Self sustaining agriculture production system Availability of skilled manpower low consumption of chemical fertilizer and pesticides state offers ample scope for organic farming. Farmers in some areas are practicing traditional farming with out any use of chemicals. Such areas are chemical free areas.
Traditional farming over the centuries in Himachal has always followed excellent organic methods. Cattle sheep goats and horses manure with their bedding straw had formed bulk of organic matter. Availability of oak leaf mould, green manuring, and excess forage grasses at times. Fields are below large forested hillsides Crop rotation is mostly followed in H.P.
The un-employed youth can be engaged for Internal Control System leading to certification, providing consultancy services to the farmers, production and supply of organic inputs, marketing of organic products etc. The State Government is also taking necessary steps for developing brand for 'Himachal Organic. Organic agriculture would also open new vistas of employment for Himachali youths.
Activities2009-2010 Farmers Registered4,000 Area Covered (in ha.)1,200 Wormi Composting Units1,50,000 Prod. of Wormi Compost (MT)2,40,000 Wormi Hatcheries20 Bio-fertilizer Distribution (MT)12 Source : Rana, 2010 Promotion of organic farming (H.P.) 19,000 farmers registered till 2009
Activities in Organic farming in Himachal Pradesh A project has been taken up in Shimla district in collaboration with Morarka Foundation and District Rural Dev. Agency, Shimla. Under the project 48 clusters were formed and 5800 farmers have been registered so far. The development of Agriculture is providing assistance @ Rs.1500/- per farmer. This assistance would be provided in three years for documentation, data base management, training and capacity building, organic certification, linkage and value addition. One Cert Asia Agri. Certification Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur has been engaged for the certification of organic produce. After the certification, this company will explore the market for this produce by making agreement with the interested companies.
Constraints in Organic Farming Organic manures contain fewer amounts of nutrients. Benefit of organic practices are not seen immediately Chemicals are easy to use and largely available Large quantities of organic inputs are required Difficult to get organic fertilizers Organic manures are quite expensive especially when it involves transportation. Unorganized market for organically grown produce.
No experimental evidence on the cost benefit ratio of organic farming. Government effort to propagate organic farming is very little. Lack of knowledge about organic agriculture. Lack of economic and political advocacy. Population pressures encourage intensification. The high cost of certification by foreign organizations.
Conclusion Neither conventional farming with inorganic alone nor organic farming only with the use organic inputs can face this challenge. The combination of organic and inorganic is undoubtedly the best option as on today unless the existing dietary system is changed. organic production is coming from farmers movement and consumer choice which cannot be ignored. Organic farming should not be discouraged under any circumstances.
Efforts may be made to promote organic green food or ecofriendly food (which allows the use of limited and specified agrochemicals of safe level in the line of standard made by local Public Health Department) as being practiced by China on large scale. The immediate task is to arrange availability of organic inputs and low cost certification process. There is already demand from farmers that there should be separate standard and certification for domestic market.