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US History Unit #9.  “New” Immigrants – Immigrants who came to the United States from southern and eastern Europe and struggled to adapt to America culture.

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Presentation on theme: "US History Unit #9.  “New” Immigrants – Immigrants who came to the United States from southern and eastern Europe and struggled to adapt to America culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History Unit #9

2  “New” Immigrants – Immigrants who came to the United States from southern and eastern Europe and struggled to adapt to America culture due to their difference in language, religion, and social status.  Between the end of the Civil War (1870s) and the beginning of World War I (1910s) there was a dramatic increase in the number of immigrants coming to the United States.  Prior to the 1870s the majority of immigrants had been Protestants from northern and western Europe. They came as families to settle in the United States, often on farms with family or friends who had come before. Many had saved money for the journey, had a skill or trade, and were educated.  In contrast, “new” immigrants were often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish, and likely to settle in cities rather than on farms. Many came alone, planning to save some money in the United States and return home to live. Between 1900 and 1910, 70% of all immigrants coming to the United States came from Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Hungary, and other southern and eastern European countries.  Steerage – The worst accommodations on a ship; located on the lower decks with no private cabins, most “new” immigrants were only able to afford this type of travel. Closure Question #1: How did new immigrants differ from old immigrants?

3  Push Factors – Events which took place in the native countries of immigrants which led them to immigrate to the United States; these include poor economy, warfare, and religious persecution.  In Mexico, Poland, and China, land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land. Beginning in the 1840s, China and eastern Europe experienced repeated wars and political revolutions. One of the largest groups t settle in America were Russian and eastern European Jews fleeing religious persecution.  Pull Factors – Perceived opportunities in the United States that led people in other countries to immigrate to the United States; these include cheap land in the American west and industrial jobs in American cities, political stability, and freedom of religion.  The United States offered special attractions, including plentiful land and employment. The 1862 Homestead Act and aid from railroad companies made western farmland inexpensive. The railroads even offered reduced fares to get there because they needed customers in the west for their own business to succeed. Until 1885, immigrants were recruited from their homelands to build railroads, dig mines, work in oil fields, harvest produce, or toil in factories. Others hoped to strike it rich by finding gold.

4  Ellis Island – Immigrant processing station in New York Harbor for most immigrants entering the United States from Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean between 1892 and the 1960s.  In the processing station immigration officials decided who could stay in the United States. To enter, immigrants had to be healthy and show that they had money, a skill, or a sponsor to provide for them. While 1 st and 2 nd class passengers were inspected on the ship and released unless they had obvious medical problems, all 3 rd and steerage class passengers had to go through Ellis Island. There immigration officers conducted legal and medical examinations. Only about 2% of immigrants were denied entry.  Angel Island – Immigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay for most immigrants entering the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands between 1910 and the 1960s.  While Ellis Island was generally welcoming, the purpose of Angel Island was to filter out unwanted immigrants, specially the Chinese. After 1882, Chinese immigrants were turned away unless they could prove that they were American citizens or had relatives living in America. Officials often assumed that Chinese newcomers would misrepresent themselves in order to gain entry. While most immigrants left Ellis Island within hours, Chinese immigrants at Angel Island often spent weeks or even months detained in poor conditions. Closure Question #2: What problems did immigrants face in coming to America?

5  Americanization – A process through which an immigrant and his/her descendants abandon their native customs and language, replacing them with English and American dress, diet, and traditions.  Most new immigrants stayed in cities, close to industrial jobs and factories. There, they often lived in ethnic neighborhoods, called ghettoes, with people who shared their native language, religion, and culture. By 1890, many cities had huge immigrant populations. In San Francisco and Chicago, they made up more than 40% of the population. 4 out of 5 inhabitants of New York City were foreign born or had foreign-born parents.  In many cities, volunteer institutions, known as settlement houses, ran Americanization programs. At the same time, immigrants helped one another through fraternal organizations, such as the Polish National Alliance and the Ancient Order of Hibernians. These organizations, based on ethnic or religious identity, provided social services and financial assistance.  Melting Pot – A society in which white people of all different nationalities blend to create a single culture; the United States at the turn of the 20 th century was considered to be a melting pot society.

6  Nativism – A belief that native-born white Americans were superior to newcomers; competition for jobs and housing between native-born and foreign-born Americans led to a rise in Nativism in the late 1800s  Religion was also a big problem. Protestants were suspicious of Catholicism, the religion of many Irish, German, Italian, and Polish people. Some native-born white Protestants would not hire, vote for, or work with Catholics or Jews. Some Americans even signed restrictive contracts agreeing not to rent or sell property to Catholics, Jews, African-Americans, or other groups they considered “non-native”.  Chinese Exclusion Act – Passed in 1882, this law prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers, limited the civil rights of Chinese immigrants already in the USA, and forbade the naturalization of Chinese residents.  Nativist intellectuals backed up their prejudices with dubious scientific rhetoric that linked immigrants’ physical characteristics to criminal tendencies or lower intellectual abilities.  As a result of the CEA, many Chinese-Americans dared not visit their families in China, fearing they would not be permitted to return to the USA.

7  Despite opposition, immigrants transformed American society. They fueled industrial growth, acquired citizenship, elected politicians, and made their traditions part of American culture. Mexican Americans in the Southwest developed effective ranching techniques, while Chinese, Irish, and Mexican laborers built the railroads. Equally as important, immigrants labored in coal mines, steel mills, textile mills, and factories. Immigrant women worked in factories, as seamstresses, as laundresses, and doing piecework. Others became domestic servants. Though the conditions were harsh and they received few benefits, immigrants’ labor helped the United States become a world power.  Increasingly, immigrants demanded a voice, becoming active in labor unions and politics. They lobbied for policies to protect the poor and powerless and used their votes to elect favorable governments. The political leaders they supported became powerful. Union leaders demanded reforms that helped immigrants as well as al laborers. Immigrants expanded the definition of American.

8  Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 14, Section 1: 1. How did new immigrants differ from old immigrants? 2. What problems did immigrants face in coming to America? 3. In what ways did immigrants affect the American economy and culture?

9  As you watch the film, in Box #2 of your Bell Work answer the following questions:  1. Search: Describe the conditions for the lower-class in Ireland in the late 1800s. Give at least 3 facts observed during the film.  2. Analyze: Why does Joseph Donnelly (Tom Cruise’s character) feel that it is his duty to kill his landlord? (Explain in at least 1 sentence)  3. Apply: What similarities are there between the difficult circumstances of Joseph Donnelly and those of immigrants today? (At least 2 similarities)

10  A process through which the number of cities and people living in cities within a country increases; in the late 19 th century, America experienced a dramatic increase in Urbanization partly due to the influx of new immigrants and rural- to-urban migration.  America’s major cities were manufacturing and transportation centers clustered in the Northeast, on the Pacific Coast, and along the waterways of the Midwest. Connected by railroad lines, cities became magnets for immigrants and rural Americans. They were attracted by jobs in factories or the service industries.  Women’s opportunities were dramatically expanded in urban areas. In addition to factory work, they could take in boarders, do piecework, or become domestic servants. Educated women found work as teachers or in offices as secretaries and typists.  While city jobs required hard work for little pay, city life offered variety, promise and a bit of glamour to residents. By saving part of their wages, city workers might attain some comforts or perhaps even move into the growing middle class, and at the very least they could improve their children’s opportunities by sending them to school.  Horace Greeley, a politician and newspaper editor, wrote in the 1860s, “We cannot all live in cities, yet nearly all seem determined to do so.” City churches, theatres, social clubs and museums offered companionship and entertainment. Closure Question #1: Why did immigrants and rural migrants move to cities?

11  Americans who moved from farms and agricultural work, often in the Southern states, to cities in the Northeast and Midwest.  The move from farm to factory was difficult. Former agricultural workers often found themselves working in dim light and narrow confines. The pace of work was controlled by rigid schedules, with no slow seasons. However, factory work paid wages in cash, which was sometimes scarce on family farms. The increasing difficulty of making a living on a farm combined with the excitement and variety of city life sparked migration.  Midwestern cities such as Minneapolis-St. Paul and Chicago exploded between 1880 and 1890. Many newcomers to these cities were migrants from the rural West. They were attracted by land but also by economic opportunities. African Americans moving out of the South were also part of the migration, though on a smaller scale.  By 1900, some urban areas had a population that was more than 40% foreign born. Many immigrants joined family members in the cities while others were recruited by companies needing labor. Neighborhoods, cities, regions and industries often acquired a majority of workers from a particular locale. For example, employees at the steel mills in western Pennsylvania were predominantly Polish, while the textile factories of New York became a center for eastern European Jewish people. Domestic servants in the Northeast were primarily Irish women, while Scandinavians worked in the fish-packing industry of the Pacific Northwest. Closure Question #1: Why did immigrants and rural migrants move to cities?

12  Skyscrapers – Ten-story and taller buildings with steel frames and artistic designs used for office space in major American cities.  Elisha Otis – Inventor of the safety elevator in the 1850s, making the use of skyscrapers for office use more practical.  Centralized heating systems were also improved in the 1870s, further enhancing the practicality of establishing offices in skyscrapers.  During the late 1800s, architecture emerged as a specialized career. The American Institute of Architecture was established in 1857 to professionalize the practice. Its members encouraged specific education and official licensing in order to become an architect.  These professionals designed the buildings that were quickly becoming hallmarks of urban life: public schools, libraries, train stations, financial institutions, office buildings, and residences.  As cities swelled in size, politicians and workers struggled to keep up with the demands of growth to provide water, sewers, schools, and safety. American innovators stepped up to the task by developing new technologies to improve living conditions. The middle and upper classes benefited most from the innovations, but every city dweller was affected. Electric trolleys and subways, building codes, and other innovations kept crowded cities from slipping into pollution and chaos. Closure Question #2: How did city planners try to improve city life?

13  Mass Transit – Public systems that could carry large numbers of people fairly inexpensively; these include rail lines, trolleys, electric cable cars, subways, and busses.  In 1888, Richmond, Virginia introduced the first streetcar system powered by electric cables. Within a decade every major city followed. Commuter rail lines had carried people to areas in and around cities since the 1870s; However, they were powered by coal-driven steam engines, making them slow, unreliable, and dirty.  Some cities used trolleys pulled by horses, which were slower and left horse waste all over the streets. Electricity, on the other hand, was quiet, clean, and efficient. Electric cars ran on a reliable schedule and could carry many more people than horse-drawn carts.  Suburbs –Communities established on the perimeter of industrial cities; Middle and upper class people began moving to the suburbs in the late 1800s as a result of the development of mass transit, which permitted them to commute to work in the city. Closure Question #2: How did city planners try to improve city life?

14  Landscape engineer who pioneered the idea of establishing city parks in urban centers; Olmstead designed New York’s Central Park, Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park, and several others across the country.  As cities grew larger and more complex, architectural firms expanded to offer city-planning services designed to make cities more functional and beautiful, even as their populations skyrocketed. Architect Daniel Burnham designed his version of the ideal city for Chicago’s 1893 World’s Columbian Exhibition, a fair held to commemorate Columbus’ arrival in the Americas. Called the White city, the integrated design included boulevards, parks, buildings and even electric streetlights.  Mass transit allowed city planners to segregate parts of the city by zoning, or designating certain areas for particular functions. Through the 1890s, cities embraced designs that had separate zones for heavy industry, financial institutions, and residences. They also built public spaces, such as public libraries, government buildings, and universities.  Parks and recreational spaces were one of the most important aspects of city planning. Since the 1850s, cities had built parks as a solution to some of the problems of urban growth. Philadelphia purchased areas along the Schuylkill River to protect the city’s water supply from industrial pollution. Closure Question #2: How did city planners try to improve city life?

15  Low-cost multifamily housing designed to squeeze in as many families as possible; with few windows and little sanitation, tenements were unhealthy and dangerous.  Growing cities faced many problems caused by overcrowding and poverty. In 1890, New York’s Lower East Side had a population of more than 700 people per acre. As immigrants and rural migrants arrived, they crowded into neighborhoods that already seemed to be overflowing.  As newcomers moved into urban areas, those who could not afford to ride mass transit had to live within walking distance of the industrial plants and factories where they worked. Housing in densely populated neighborhoods was often aging and usually overcrowded. Sometimes, several families lived in one apartment or even one room. They used the space for sewing clothes or doing other piecework to earn money.  Tenement owners usually lived in the suburbs or in fashionable downtown areas, away from the industrial grime. However, they built apartments for desperate people who had little choice about where they lived. In 1890, journalist Jacob Riis drew attention to the plight of New York tenement dwellers. “Go into any of the ‘respectable’ tenement neighborhoods… you shall come away agreeing (that)… life there does not seem worth living… The airshaft seems always so busy letting out foul stenches that it has no time to earn its name by bringing down fresh air…” –Jacob Riis Closure Question #3: Why did the cities of the late nineteenth century have many problems?

16  Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 14, Section 2: 1. Why did immigrants and rural migrants move to cities? 2. How did city planners try to improve city life? 3. Why did the cities of the late nineteenth century have many problems?

17  As you watch the film, in Box #4 of your Bell Work answer the following questions:  1. Search: a) To what city do Joseph Donnelly and Shannon Christie (Nicole Kidman’s character) arrive in America? b) How does Joseph protect Shannon once they arrive in the Mr. Kelly’s club?  2. Analyze: Why does Joseph Donnelly like America? Give at least 2 examples of things that he likes.  3. Apply: What are some of the challenges faced by immigrants to the United States today? At least 1 sentence

18  Pseudonym for Samuel Clemens, a 19 th century American author and satirist; Twain wrote classics such as Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer and is also credited with labeling the era following the American Civil War as “The Gilded Age”.  In his 1873 novel, The Gilded Age, Twain depicted American society as gilded, or having a rotten core covered with gold paint.  Late nineteenth-century cities were filthy. Unpaved streets were snarled with ruts and littered with trash and even dead horses that were left to rot. Alleys between tenements were clogged with food waste and trash. Only the newest urban dwellings had indoor toilets, and the shared toilets in tenements often overflowed. These conditions were perfect for breeding epidemics, posing danger to everyone.  During the 1880s, planners attempted to regulate housing, sanitation, sewers, and public health. They began to take water from reservoirs that were separate from the polluted rivers and lakes. In the next decade, a new filtration system improved water quality even more. Private companies competed for lucrative contracts to manage water distribution. Especially in the Southwest, where water was in short supply, questions of who should profit from water delivery sent city planners into a frenzy.

19  Label given to the last decades of the nineteenth century; the era is known for technological advancements and dramatic quality of life improvements for the middle-class.  The new lifestyle that middle-class Americans adopted during this period – shopping, sports, and reading popular magazines and newspapers – contributed to the development of a more commonly shared American culture that would persist for the next century.  After the Civil War, Americans began to measure success by what they could buy. Equating purchasing power with a higher standard of living, middle-class and some working-class consumers rushed to modernize their homes and clothing styles. In this period, the cost of living decreased because manufactured products and new technology cost less. Better sanitation and medical care contributed to better health, causing life expectancy to climb.  The end of the 19 th century is sometimes called the Victorian Era, after the queen of England. The rich were richer than ever before, and the middle-class tried to imitate their lifestyle. Factory-produced clothing and prepackaged food gave homemakers a break from some activities, but rising expectations of cleanliness and more complicated meals meant that they spent more time on those tasks. Other luxuries, like indoor plumbing, also became common. On the other hand, many women had to work outside their homes to achieve a middle-class lifestyle.

20  A cultural trait of the United States in the late 19 th century in which people wanted and bought the many new products on the market.  Industrialization and urbanization changed the lives of American workers. More people began to work for wages rather than for themselves on farms. Some people worked in offices, drove trolleys, or became factory foremen. Even farmers made more cash as machinery improved and they sold more crops. More products were available than ever before and at lower prices. All but the very poorest working-class laborers were able to do and buy more than they would have in the past.  Rowland H. Macy opened what he called a department store in New York in 1858. It became the largest single store in America. Its sales methods – widespread advertising, a variety of goods organized into “departments” and high- quality items at fair prices – became the standard in large urban stores. By the 1870s, many big cities had department stores: Jordan Marsh in Boston, Marshall Field in Chicago, and Wanamaker’s in Philadelphia.  John Wanamaker developed innovative ways to keep customers satisfied. He was the first to offer a money back guarantee. In addition, he placed large newspaper advertisements to attract customers. Later, Wanamaker became Postmaster General. In that position, he lowered the bulk shipping rates and began free delivery to rural areas, which led to a boom in the mail-order catalog business. Closure Question #1: What factors contributed to consumerism?

21  Joseph Pulitzer – Hungarian immigrant who started The World, a successful newspaper in New York City which was supported by business that placed advertisements in the paper.  Pulitzer fought in the Civil War for the Union. After the war he moved to Missouri and was active in politics there in the 1870s before moving to New York City. The World was so successful that Pulitzer started publishing The Evening World.  The job of a newspaper, Pulitzer believed, was to inform people and to stir up controversy. His newspapers were sensationalistic, filled with exposes of political corruption, comics, sports, and illustrations. They were designed to get the widest possible readership, rather than simply to report the news.  William Randolph Hearst – Founder of The Morning Journal and Pulitzer’s chief rival in the New York City newspaper business.  Ethnic and special-interest publishers catered to the array of urban dwellers. Between 1870 and 1900 the number of newspapers increased from about 600 to more than 1,600. The Philadelphia Tribune, begun in the 1880s, targeted the African-American market. In New York, there were six Italian-language papers by 1910. Each sold more than 10,000 copies daily.

22  Late 19 th century American Author who wrote about characters who succeeded by hard work. (Rags-to-Riches)  In 1868 Alger published his first novel, Ragged Dick, or Street Life in New York. This wildly successful novel told the story of a poor boy who rose to wealth and fame by working hard. Alger’s novels stressed the possibility that anyone could vault from poverty and obscurity to wealth and fame.  Novels that explored harsh realities were also popular in the Gilded Age. Stephen Crane exposed the slums of New York in his Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893). He later wrote The Red Badge of Courage, which explored the psychological aspects of war.  Henry James and Edith Wharton were authors who questioned a society based upon rigid rules of conduct. Playwrights such as John Augustin Daly mirrored Mark Twain’s disapproval of the Gilded Age.  The vitality of city life also inspired graphic artists. Philadelphia’s Thomas Eakins painted a larger-than-life illustration of a medical operation, complete with exposed flesh. Painter Robert Henri and his associates developed a style of painting known as the Ashcan School which dramatized the starkness and squalor of New York City slums and street life.

23  Influential philosopher, reformer and professor of the Gilded Age; Dewey’s child-centered philosophy of education provides the foundation for modern education in the United States.  Dewey argued that students learn by doing activities that teach them to answer their own questions, rather than by memorizing from books and lectures. His opponents argued that orderly classrooms were better for learning. Dewey’s ideas declined in popularity by the 1950s, but regained popularity in the 1980s.  During the Gilded Age Public Education expanded rapidly. Grade-school education became compulsory nationwide. Many locales also provided high schools, although only a small percentage of young people attended. In 1870, the nation had only a few hundred high schools; in 1910, there were more than 5,000. Kindergartens also appeared as a way to help working-class mothers. As a result, the literacy rate climbed to nearly 90% by 1900.  Schools taught courses in science, woodworking, and drafting, providing skills that workers needed in budding industries. The curriculum also included civics and business training. Urban leaders counted on schools to help Americanize immigrants, teaching them English and shaping them into good citizens. Teacher-training schools responded to the call. Not only did they grow in number, but they also developed more sophisticated ideas about teaching and learning.

24  Amusement Parks - Recreation sites developed in the United States during the late 19 th century which featured rides, “freak” shows, and other abnormal forms of entertainment  Coney Island – America’s first and best-known Amusement Park; Built In New York City on the coast in 1884 by Lamarcus Thompson featuring the world’s first roller coaster.  At ten cents a ride, Thompson averaged more than $600.00 in daily income. Coney Island added a hotel and a horseracing track. Similar amusement parks, located within easy reach of a city, were built around the country.  While earlier generations had enjoyed a picnic in the park, the new urbanite – even those with limited means - willingly paid the entry fees for these new, more thrilling, entertainments. Urban residents of all ethnicities and races could be found at these amusement spots, though each group was usually relegated to a particular area of the parks. The parks represented a day-long vacation for city laborers who could not afford to take the long seaside vacations enjoyed by the wealthy. Closure Question #2: Describe middle-class entertainment.

25  A medley of musical drama, songs, and off-color comedy shows which toured the major cities of the United States in the Gilded Age.  In 1881, an entrepreneur named Tony Pastor opened a theater in New York, aiming to provide families with “a straight, clean variety show”, a contrast to the rude humor of Vaudeville.  By 1900, a few companies owned chains of vaudeville theaters, stretching across the country.  Performance theater was not the only option. Movie theaters, called nickelodeons, soon introduced motion pictures, charging a nickel for admission. Films such as The Great Train Robbery became wildly popular.  In music halls, ragtime bands created a style of music that later evolved into jazz.  Some cities – including Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, Buffalo, and Omaha – hosted exhibitions of new technology and entertainment. These extravaganzas stretched American imaginations to see a future filled with machines and gadgets. Millions of visitors saw everything from steam engines to typewriters and telephones. In many ways, the new amusements mirrored urban life, filled with variety, drama, bright colors and a very fast pace. Closure Question #2: Describe middle-class entertainment.

26  Spectator Sports – Athletic competitions held for entertainment; in the United States spectator sports began to become popular during the Gilded Age and included baseball, horse racing, boxing, bicycle racing, and football.  Baseball – The national sport of the United States and the most popular spectator sport of the Gilded Age; the first professional baseball league, the National League, was established in 1876.  Major cities built stadiums that seated thousands of people, like Boston’s Fenway Park. Billboards advertised everything from other sports to toothpaste and patent medicines. There were even baseball songs. The most famous – “Take Me Out To The Ball Game” – was written in 1908.  Until 1887 teams sometimes included African American players. After the Chicago White Stockings refused to play against a team that had a black player, separate African American teams emerged by 1900. Closure Question #2: Describe middle-class entertainment.

27  Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 14, Section 3: 1. What factors contributed to consumerism? 2. Describe middle-class entertainment. 3. How did middle-class urban life differ from life for the urban poor?

28  As you watch the film, in Box #6 of your Bell Work answer the following questions:  1. Search: Describe life on the American frontier in the late 1800s. (At least 3 facts)  2. Analyze: Why is owning land so important to Joseph? (At least 1 reason and 1 sentence)  3. Apply: In the late 1800s owning land was a key goal of immigrants to the United States. What is the key goal of immigrants to the United States today? Why? (At least 1 sentence)

29 Cash Crop  Crops grown by farmers not for their personal use but to be sold for cash. Closure Question #1: What positive steps did the South take to industrialize after the Civil War?

30 Farmers’ Alliance  Local organizations of farmers across the USA which came together to negotiate as a group for lower prices for supplies and lower transportation costs to ship their crops to market.  Dependence on one major crop was extremely risky. In the case of southern cotton, it was the boll weevil that heralded disaster. The boll weevil, a beetle which could destroy an entire crop of cotton, appeared in Texas in the early 1890s. Over the next decade, the yield from cotton cultivation in some states dropped by more than 50%. Closure Question #2: How did southern agriculture suffer from the domination of cotton?

31 Civil Rights Act of 1875  Guaranteed African Americans the right to ride trains and use public facilities such as hotels; however, in 1883 the Supreme Court ruled that who could use public accommodations was a local issue, to be governed by state or local laws. Closure Question #3: How did southern African Americans both gain and lose civil rights after the Civil War?

32 Closure #4  Working in groups of 4, use your notes from Chapter 15, Section 1 to answer the following questions: 1. What positive steps did the South take to industrialize after the Civil War? 2. How did southern agriculture suffer from the domination of cotton? 3. How did southern African Americans both gain and lose civil rights after the Civil War?

33 Reservations  Specific areas set aside by the government for Native Americans to use; By the late 1860s, the majority of tribes had been forced onto reservations by federal troops. Closure Question #1: Why did Native Americans and white settlers clash? (At least 2 reasons)

34 Sand Creek Massacre (Fall 1864)  Colorado militiamen attacked an unarmed camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who were under U.S. Army protection. Men, women, and children were killed. News of the massacre sparked more warfare between Plains Indians and White Settlers. Closure Question #1: Why did Native Americans and white settlers clash? (At least 2 reasons)

35 George A. Custer  Union Colonel during the Civil War, Custer led a 250-man U.S. Cavalry column into ambush at Little Big Horn. In the battle Custer and all of his men were killed. Closure Question #1: Why did Native Americans and white settlers clash? (At least 2 reasons)

36 Sitting Bull  Leader of the Lakota Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn Closure Question #2: How did Native Americans try but fail to keep their land? (At least 2 examples)

37 Little Big Horn – June 1876  Massacre of U.S. Cavalry Unit by Sioux warriors in Montana; The massacre led to cries for revenge from Americans, leading to harsher treatment of Native Americans. Closure Question #2: How did Native Americans try but fail to keep their land? (At least 2 examples)

38 Wounded Knee – South Dakota, 1890  Final battle of the Ghost Dance War; the U.S. Cavalry massacred over 100 men, women and children who had been followers of Sitting Bull. Wounded Knee sealed the demise of Plains Indians. Closure Question #2: How did Native Americans try but fail to keep their land? (At least 2 examples)

39 Chief Joseph  Leader of the Nez Perces in Idaho; attempting to avoid being moved to a reservation, In 1877 Joseph led his tribe 1,300 miles north before being captured by U.S. Cavalry. At the time of his capture Joseph made the statement, “I will fight no more forever.” Closure Question #3: What steps were taken to foster assimilation of Native Americans? (At least 2 steps)

40 Assimilated  Replacing a minority’s native culture with the culture of the majority; in the late 19 th century U.S. Government officials attempted to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream American culture by removing children from their homes and sending them to boarding schools where they were forced to adopt white American culture. Closure Question #3: What steps were taken to foster assimilation of Native Americans? (At least 2 steps)

41 Dawes General Allotment Act - 1887  Replaced the Native American reservation system with an allotment system. Under the act, each Indian family was granted 160 acres of land in the western United States. Closure Question #3: What steps were taken to foster assimilation of Native Americans? (At least 2 steps)

42 Closure #5  Working in groups of 4, use your notes from Chapter 15, Section 2 to answer the following questions: 1. Why did Native Americans and white settlers clash? (At least 2 reasons) 2. How did Native Americans try but fail to keep their land? (At least 2 examples) 3. What steps were taken to foster assimilation of Native Americans? (At least 2 steps)

43 Mining Towns  Rapidly constructed communities established in the western United States following the discovery of gold or silver; examples of towns include Carson City, Nevada & Pikes Peak, Colorado. Closure Question #1: How did mining in the West change over time?

44 Vigilantes  Self-appointed law enforcers who punished lawbreakers in mining towns and other western communities. Closure Question #1: How did mining in the West change over time?

45 Transcontinental Railroad  A rail link between the Eastern and Western United States; the first Transcontinental Railroad was completed by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific in 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah. It connected Omaha, Nebraska with Sacramento, California. Closure Question #2: How did railroads contribute to the settlement and growth of the West?

46 Land Grants  Gifts of land made by the Federal Government to railroad companies to facilitate construction of railroad tracks; the land was used for construction of the railroad and was also sold by the railroad companies to settlers. Closure Question #2: How did railroads contribute to the settlement and growth of the West?

47 Open-Range System  System of cattle ranching in which owners marked (branded) their cattle so they could be identified, then allowed them to graze on communal property that was not fenced in. Closure Question #3: How did economic and cultural diversity cause conflicts in the West?

48 Homestead Act - 1862  Law under which the government offered farm plots in the west of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land, dig a well, and build a road. Closure Question #3: How did economic and cultural diversity cause conflicts in the West?

49 Exodusters  A group of African-American agricultural migrants organized by Benjamin Singleton who came to Kansas and Oklahoma after the end of Reconstruction, founding several all-black towns. Closure Question #3: How did economic and cultural diversity cause conflicts in the West?

50 Closure #6  Working in groups of 4, use your notes from Chapter 15, Section 3 to answer the following questions: 1. How did mining in the West change over time? 2. How did railroads contribute to the settlement and growth of the West? 3. How did economic and cultural diversity cause conflicts in the West?


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