Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Screening By Karissa Parsons and Melissa Fakunle."— Presentation transcript:
Prenatal Screening By Karissa Parsons and Melissa Fakunle
What is it? Prenatal screening is a set of procedures performed during pregnancy to determine whether a baby is likely to have specific birth defects Parental Screening can be done in different ways but the common ones are Amniocentesis, Chorionic villi sampling, and Ultrasounds which can be done in 2D,3D, and 4D. Screening can be done beginning at 11 weeks of pregnancy and is available to every pregnant women.
How Does Prenatal Screening Work? Mothers (while pregnant) can have their babies tested for being at risk of a chromosomal anomaly or a neural tube defect Ultrasound data and samples from the mother’s blood will be tested for signs of certain conditions The data collected does not diagnose the baby, it only gives the likelihood of the baby having the condition. (ex. 1-in-100) The type of prenatal screening a mother can have depends on how far along a mother is in her pregnancy (The earlier in the pregnancy, the more options the mother has)
An ultrasound which is also known as ultrasonography shows an image of what the baby looks like inside the womb. It uses high frequency sound waves to create images. Determines the size, how well the heart is doing and other organs, the position of baby, and conforms how long you are in pregancy. It can also finds abnormalities in the structure of the baby’s bones and organs 4D ultrasounds gives you life-like images of the baby and also shows the motion of the fetal heart wall or valves, or blood flow in various vessels. Ultrasound
Chorionic Villi Sampling Chorionic Villi sampling (CVS) is when a sample of Chorionic is taken out from the placenta for testing. CVS can tell if a baby chromosomal condition e.g. Down Syndrome. It can also be used to test other genetic syndromes like cystic fibrosis. This is usually done 10 to 13 weeks of pregnancy
Amniocentesis An amniocentesis is a prenatal test it is when a small amount of amniotic fluid is taken from the sac surrounding the fetus for testing Amniocentesis is performed to look for birth defects e.g. downsyndrome Amniocentesis does not detect all birth defects but it can find: 1.Down syndrome 2.Sickle cell disease 3.Cystic fibrosis 4.Muscular dystrophy 5.Tay-sachs and other similar diseases
Risks and Benefits- 4D Ultrasound Benefits: ❖ Able to see the baby and their movements (fathers can connect with baby) ❖ If machines malfunction or are not up to FDA standards it will automatically shut off ❖ FDA has performed tests to make sure that the heat of the created waves does not affect the baby ❖ Help to hear heart anomalies Risks: ❖ Unknown risks to long exposure of sound waves
Risks: ❖ Invasive procedure ❖ Concern for having a miscarriage (1-in-100 chance; 1%) ❖ Can cause the baby and mother’s blood to mix (if baby is Rh+ can attack the baby) ❖ Some studies say that there is a slight chance for defects in fingers and toes of the baby (1- in-3,000) ❖ Symptoms for mother after procedure (ex. Cramping, fever, chills, infection, etc.) Benefits: ❖ Quicker results ❖ Answers are almost always reliable ❖ Can be performed earlier (early stages of 1st trimester) Risks and Benefits- Chorionic Villi Sampling
Risks and Benefits- Amniocentesis Risks: ❖ Risk of a miscarriage ❖ Pain and cramping after procedure ❖ Most of the diseases found by test cannot be cured ❖ Performed during early pregnancy ❖ Infections could occur ❖ Needle could injure the baby, placenta, or umbilical cord Benefits: ❖ 95% of the time it is good results ❖ Tests for many different types of defects (chromosomal, sex, neural tube, metabolism, and enzyme deficiencies) ❖ Can also be used to take out amniotic fluid if there is an excess amount
Video Amniocentesis procedure: Future Uses: ❖ If certain diseases are becoming more popular, they can do test on babies and have more research to find cures.