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Man And Biology Content Biology And Human Welfare Biotechnology The Genetic Engineering Use Of Bacteria And Fungi Role Of The Biology In Economic Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Man And Biology Content Biology And Human Welfare Biotechnology The Genetic Engineering Use Of Bacteria And Fungi Role Of The Biology In Economic Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Man And Biology Content Biology And Human Welfare Biotechnology The Genetic Engineering Use Of Bacteria And Fungi Role Of The Biology In Economic Development Chemical And Biological Control Of Pests Biology And Conservation Of Environment Pollution Types Of Pollutants And Their Sources Control And Preventive Measures Organisms Affecting Human Health Common Diseases Caused By Viruses Antibiotics And Their Importance

2 Biology And Human Welfare The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. Biology

3 Biotechnology Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

4 Importance of Biotechnology Biotechnology has already begun to change traditional industries such as food processing and fermentation. It has also given rise to the development of a whole new technology for industrial production of hormones, antibiotics and other chemicals, food and energy sources and processing of waste materials. This industry must be staffed by trained biotechnologists who not only have a sound basis of biological knowledge, but a thorough grounding in engineering methods.

5 Genetics Engineering Genetic engineering alters the genetic make- up of an organism using techniques that remove heritable material or that introduce DNA prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridized with the host.

6 Role of the Biology in Economic Development Biology tells us about humans, plants, animals, cells, and really the entire world around us! Without biology, we wouldn't have treatments, cures, and vaccines for many diseases. Because of advancements in this field, we're living life much more comfortably than people hundreds of years ago did. Biology continues to grow and make huge advancements, so people hundreds of years from now can look back on us and think, "how horrible it must have been to live like that!"

7 Role of the Biology in Economic Development Biology even studies how we interact with the non- living world around us. With ecology, we're constantly learning how animals use various materials around them and even how they adapt to a changing environment.

8 Biology in Agricultural Crops Advance studies in biology especially genetic engineering, plant and animal breeding and biotechnology have n flounced man’s economic, social and industrial progress. They have enabled man to develop high yielding crops, better strains of livestock and many other developments beneficial to man. They are proving helpful in meeting the demands of rapidly growing population. Some of the contributions of biology in the economic development of various aspects of human life are given below.

9 Biology in Agricultural Crops Forestry, fuel, furniture Forestry is the business of cultivating trees which provide us fuel, timber and wood products. Timber is used for making furniture. Paper industry is also dependent upon wood. Turpentine and resins are extracted from many of the trees.

10 Biology in Agricultural Crops Advancement in biology has helped forest cultivators in choosing trees that fit successfully in local habitat. Modern plant breeding techniques have developed various varieties of plants that can tolerate wide range of climatic conditions and are fast growing, in addition to being of high productivity, palatability and nutritional content. So forest cultivators select varieties which satisfy all their requirements.

11 AGRICULTURE Food and clothing are basic necessities of mankind. With the increase of population man thought of securing more food by cultivating the most desirable plants and domesticating animal breeds. Application of the biological knowledge has enabled scientists to increases yield of crops and to improve quality of fruits and vegetables. In agriculture, cereal crops like wheat, corn, rice have been selectively cultivated and crossed with other varieties to produce super strains capable of giving a palatable high yielding crop in a minimal amount of time. Disease and pest resistant varieties have been evolved by plant breeders.

12 Dairy, poultry and fish farming Biology is playing very important role in the economic development, in the field of poultry, dairy and fish farming. By the use of animal breeding technology, cross breeds of different animals have been raised which provide better protein source in the form f meat and high milk production in the case of cattle, eggs and meat production in the case of poultry and wool & meat in the case of sheep. The cross breeds are more resistant to disease.

13 Acid Rain Acid rain is a result of air pollution. When any type of fuel is burnt, lots of different chemicals are produced. The smoke that comes from a fire or the fumes that come out of a car exhaust don't just contain the sooty grey particles that you can see - they also contains lots of invisible gases that can be even more harmful to our environment. which is why it is known as "acid rain".

14 Acid Rain Power stations, factories and cars all burn fuels and therefore they all produce polluting gases. Some of these gases (especially nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide) react with the tiny droplets of water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. The rain from these clouds then falls as very weak acid -

15 How acidic is acid rain? Acidity is measured using a scale called the pH scale. This scale goes from 0 to 14. 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most alkaline (opposite of acidic). Something with a pH value of 7, we call neutral, this means that it is neither acidic nor alkaline. Very strong acids will burn if they touch your skin and can even destroy metals. Acid rain is much, much weaker than this, never acidic enough to burn your skin.

16 How acidic is acid rain? Rain is always slightly acidic because it mixes with naturally occurring oxides in the air. Unpolluted rain would have a pH value of between 5 and 6. When the air becomes more polluted with nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide the acidity can increase to a pH value of 4. Some rain has even been recorded as being pH2. Vinegar has a pH value of 2.2 and lemon juice has a value of pH2.3.


18 Restoring the Damage done by Acid Rain? Lakes and rivers can have powdered limestone added to them to neutralise the water - this is called "liming". Liming, however, is expensive and its effects are only temporary - it needs to be continued until the acid rain stops. The people of Norway and Sweden have successfully used liming to help restore lakes and streams in their countries. A major liming programme is currently taking place in Wales.

19 Greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

20 Greenhouse effect The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth. This process maintains the Earth’s temperature at around 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist.

21 Greenhouse effect The problem we now face is that human activities – particularly burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), agriculture and land clearing – are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This is the enhanced greenhouse effect, which is contributing to warming of the Earth. Enhanced greenhouse effect

22 Greenhouse effect Step 1: Solar radiation reaches the Earth's atmosphere - some of this is reflected back into space. Step 2: The rest of the sun's energy is absorbed by the land and the oceans, heating the Earth. Step 3: Heat radiates from Earth towards space. Step 4: Some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, keeping the Earth warm enough to sustain life. Enhanced greenhouse effect

23 Greenhouse effect Step 5: Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, agriculture and land clearing are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Step 6: This is trapping extra heat, and causing the Earth's temperature to rise. Enhanced greenhouse effect

24 Ozone Depletion Ozone layer depletion, is simply the wearing out (reduction) of the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, Ozone depletion has been pinned down to one major human activity. Industries that manufacture things like insulating foams, solvents, soaps, cooling things like Air Conditioners, Refrigerators and ‘Take-Away’ containers use something called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These substances are heavier than air, but over time, (2-5years) they are carried high into the stratosphere by wind action.

25 Ozone Depletion Depletion begins when CFC’s get into the stratosphere. Ultra violet radiation from the sun breaks up these CFCs. The breaking up action releases Chlorine atoms. Chlorine atoms react with Ozone, starting a chemical cycle that destroys the good ozone in that area. One chlorine atom can break apart more than 100,000 ozone molecules.


27 Soil erosion Soil erosion occurs when soil is removed through the action of wind and water at a greater rate than it is formed. Soil The soil covering the surface of the earth has taken millions of years to form and we must learn to respect it. Soil is formed at a rate of only 1 cm every 100 to 400 years and it takes 3 000 to 12 000 years to build enough soil to form productive land. This means that soil is a nonrenewable resource and once destroyed it is gone forever.

28 What is soil erosion? When a raindrop hits soil that is not protected by a cover of vegetation and where there are no roots to bind the soil, it has the impact of a bullet. Soil particles are loosened, washed down the slope of the land and either end up in the valley or are washed away out to sea by streams and rivers. Erosion removes the topsoil first. Once this nutrient-rich layer is gone, few plants will grow in the soil again. Without soil and plants the land becomes desertlike and unable to support life.

29 Causes of soil erosion Erosion occurs when farming practices are not compatible with the fact that soil can be washed away or blown away. These practices are: Overstocking and overgrazing Inappropriate farming techniques such as deep ploughing land 2 or 3 times a year to produce annual crops Lack of crop rotation Planting crops down the contour instead of along it.

30 Ways to reduce the soil erosion 1.Minimum tillage. The less you tear up the top layers of soil, the more resistant that soil is to water runoff. –Despite my last name, I encourage no-till whenever possible. 2.Stubble mulching. Putting that harvest waste back onto the ground provides an additional layer of insulation against environmental effects. 3.Contour cultivation. It’s not suited for all farmland, but it can reduce erosion by 25% to 90% when done properly.

31 Ways to reduce the soil erosion 4.Rotate foraging animals in fields before the pasture is depleted. 5.Plant filter strip in low lying gullies and runoff areas of your fields. 6.Plant grasses and small trees on those steep slopes. 7.Use strip cropping to control erosion in windy areas. 8.Consider using a cover crop (especially legumes) during off season times. 9.Plant tree line windbreaks, or keep the ones you’ve got.

32 Population pressure on the environment As the century begins, natural resources are under increasing pressure, threatening public health and development. Water shortages, soil exhaustion, loss of forests, air and water pollution, and degradation of coastlines afflict many areas. As the world’s population grows, improving living standards without destroying the environment is a global challenge.

33 Population pressure on the environment Most developed economies currently consume resources much faster than they can regenerate. Most developing countries with rapid population growth face the urgent need to improve living standards.

34 Environment getting worse In the past decade in every environmental sector, conditions have either failed to improve, or they are worsening. Public health, Food supply, Freshwater:

35 Conservation Principles, Policies and Guidance Conservation of Non-renewable resources: 1. Energy Conservation: The question of is how much energy necessarily involves a basic issue concerning man, his life style, and his environment. Similarly, the question of how much energy is needed to keep these wheels of society well lubricated and moving is one of the difficult questions.

36 Conservation Principles, Policies and Guidance The type of energy conservation includes the following measures: (a) Improving the efficiency of energy supply systems, (b) Decreasing the energy-intensiveness of a given standard of living through acceptable life­style changes (e.g., thermostat settings, lighting levels, or smaller cars and car-pooling), and (c) Shifting from gas or electricity to solar energy system.

37 Specific energy conservation actions are deemed desirable if one of the two criteria is met: (a) The value of the energy saved equals or exceeds the additional operating cost or investment (both appropriately discounted) required to achieve it; (b) Compared to the alternate measure to increase energy supply; and (c) The particular conservation option is superior in terms of total cost (including capital investment, energy price, economic and environment impacts) of non-exhaustive source of energy.

38 Conservation of Renewable Resources : Conservation of land, soil, minerals, water, vegetation and wildlife which is very essential in ensuring a continuous yield of plants used as food and other materials for the growing population.

39 Conservation of Renewable Resources : 1. Soil Conservation: Soil is the top cover of the earth in which plants can grow. Top soil is essential for the growth of plants which in turn provides food for human beings and animals. But rain water, wind and other natural forces gradually erode the top soil. Farmers can reduce soil erosion by planting trees, strip cropping and crop rotation methods etc.

40 Conservation of Renewable Resources : 2. Water Conservation: Conjunctive use of surface and ground water should be encouraged to atomize the water use and to alleviate the degradation of water and soil resources. Some of the measures include: (a) Avoiding wastage of water, and encourage recycling of water; (b) Reducing water pollution by treating sewage and factory wastes before disposing them; and (c) Adopting various technologies for groundwater recharge such as use of dug-wells and ponds.

41 Conservation of Renewable Resources : 3. Forests Conservation: Forests are homes for a number of wild animals. For man, these provide fuel, coal, timber, paper, rubber and lac, etc. They protect water loss from top soil and thus prevent formation of deserts. They help in regulating rainfall, avoid erosion, silting of streams and floods.

42 Conservation of Renewable Resources : 4. Fish Conservation: Man is trying to supplement his existing food resources through an increased yield of fish from ponds, lakes, rivers and seas. In his own interest, man has reduced the number of certain species of fish by overfishing. The number of reduced varieties can be restored by implementing the following steps: (a) Regulation of rate of fishing and of fish production. (b) Prohibition of overfishing. (c) Taking fish of the optimum size. Very young and sexually mature fishes should not be caught. (d) Rate of fish breeding should be increased.

43 Conservation Conservation is the wisely regulated use of natural resources of the environment. The natural resources are of two types, Renewable and Non renewable. The important renewable natural resources are air, water, soil, wildlife and forest. The non renewable resources are fossil fuel and minerals.

44 The need and principles of conservation Conservation is the wisely regulated use of natural resources of the environment. The natural resources are of two types, Renewable and Non renewable. The important renewable natural resources are air, water, soil, wildlife and forest. The non renewable resources are fossil fuel and minerals.

45 Recycling It is a process to convert (waste) into reusable material. What materials can be recycled? Glass Paper Aluminum Asphalt Iron Textiles

46 Recycling Techniques There are many different ways that materials can be recycled. The technique that is used to create the new materials from the old depends on what the material is. Here is a list of different techniques: Battery RecyclingConcrete Recycling

47 Recycling Techniques Electronic Waste Recycling Printer & Ink Cartridges

48 Recycling Techniques Glass Ferrous Materials Paper Plastic

49 Recycling Techniques Ship breaking Textile Recycling

50 Biological Sewage Treatment Ship breaking a method of purifying domestic and industrial sewage, con sisting of biochemical decomposition(mineralization) by microorganisms of organic substances (impurities of orga nic origin) dissolved and emulsified in sewage. Microorganisms (bacteria) use these substances as sources of food and energy for their life processes. In the process of the micro organisms’ respiration, organic substances are oxidized and energy necessary for their life functions is released. Part of this energy is used for the processes of synthesizing cellular substance s, that is, for increasing the mass of bacteria, the quantity of active sludge, and the thickness of the biologic film in the purifying structures.

51 Biological Sewage Treatment Bacteria that participate in the mineralization of org anic compounds in sewage may bedivided into two groups, according to their relationship to oxygen: ae robs (which use oxygendissolved in water for respir ation) and anaerobes (which develop in the absence of free oxygen).

52 Besides dissolved organic substances, sewage contains suspended substances, tars, and must be removed bef ore biologic treatment. For this purpose, gratings, sand traps, and settling tanks are used.

53 Some of the major process of secondary or biological treatment are as follows: (i) Activated Sludge Process (ii) Trickling Filters (i) Activated Sludge Process: The essential features of activated sludge process are: an aeration stage, solids- liquid separation following aeration, and a sludge recycle system. Wastewater after primary treatment enters an aeration tank where the organic matter is brought into intimate contact with the sludge from the secondary clarifier. This sludge is heavily laden with micro-organisms which are in an active state of growth. Air is introduced into the tank either in the form of bubbles through diffusers or by surface aerators.

54 The micro-organisms utilize the oxygen in the air and convert the organic matter into stabilized, low-energy compounds such as NO 3, SO 4, and CO 2 and synthesize new bacterial cells. The effluent from the aeration tank containing the flocculent microbial mass, known as sludge, is separated in a settling tank, sometimes called a secondary settler or a clarifier. In the settling tank the separated sludge exits without contact with the organic matter and becomes activated. A portion of the activated sludge is recycled to the aeration tank as a seed; the rest is wasted. If all the activated sludge is recy­cled, then the bacterial mass would keep increasing to the stage where the system gets clogged with solids. It is, therefore, necessary to ‘waste’ some of the micro- organisms, and this wasted sludge is the one which is processed and disposed of.


56 (ii) Trickling Filters: The secondly commonly used biological waste treatment process is the trick­ling filter method. Trickling filters are also called percolating filters. It has good adaptability to handle peak shock loads and the ability to function satisfactorily after a short period of time. Milk processing, paper mill and pharmaceutical wastes are among those treated by tricking filters. Conventional trickling fil­ters normally consist of a rock bed, 1 to 3 metres in depth, with enough open­ ings between rocks to allow air to circulate easily.

57 (ii) Trickling Filters: The influent is sprinkled over the bed packing,which is coated with a biological slime. As the liquid trickles over the packing, oxygen and the dissolved organic matter dif­fuse into the film to be metabolized by the micro-organisms in this slime layer. End products such as NO 3, CO 2 etc., diffuse back out of the film and appear in the filter effluent.


59 Organisms affecting human health Causative agent Different strains of viruses are responsible for causing the disease. The disease is spread by droplet infection (cough, sneezing, and breath). Treatment and control There is no particular treatment of the disease. The patient develops immunity and recovers. Rest is the only immediate treatment. Disease can be controlled by keeping patient away from other people.

60 Organisms affecting human health Measles Measles is a very infectious and worldwide disease of children. The disease starts with fever with cold, cough and a watery discharge from the eyes. On the third day rashes appear first on the face and then spread over the whole body. Causative organism The causative organism is a virus, which is air born and is inhaled in droplets. The disease spreads through the discharge from eyes and nose, which becomes air-born and spreads rapidly.

61 Organisms affecting human health Treatment and control There is no specific treatment. Child develops immunity and the signs and symptoms of the disease disappear after seven days. The child should be given plenty of drink especially milk. It is difficult to control the disease because it is highly infectious as the patient becomes infectious about 2 days before the symptom of the disease develop.

62 Organisms affecting human health Poliomyelitis Poliomyelitis is most common among the children but young and old people can also become its victims. It begins slowly. The sufferer has very high fever, headache, nausea, fits and stiffness of limbs. In severe cases, the virus attacks the nerve fibers of the spinal cord causing paralysis of the limbs and muscles of the respiratory tract, sometime proving fatal, apart from permanent disabilities.

63 Organisms affecting human health Treatment and control There are two polio vaccines; Sabin vaccine and Salk vaccine. Sabin vaccine is more common and is given orally in the form of drops. Two or three drops are given to infants during their first year which provides life long protection against polio by developing active immunity against it. Salk vaccine is injected in to the body but it is not being practiced in our country.

64 Organisms affecting human health Causative organism Poliomyelitis is caused by virus, which as transmitted by infected water. It is also transmitted b droplet infection during coughing and sneezing, of the patient.

65 Microorganisms affecting human health Microorganisms or microbes are microscopic organisms that exist as unicellular, multicellular, or cell clusters. Microorganims are widespread in nature and are beneficial to life, but some can cause serious harm. They can be divided into six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses.

66 Microorganisms affecting human health Bacteria Bacteria are unicellular organisms. The cells are described as prokaryotic because they lack a nucleus. They exist in four major shapes: bacillus (rod shape), coccus (spherical shape), spirilla (spiral shape), and vibrio (curved shape). Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall; they divide by binary fission; and they may possess flagella for motility. The difference in their cell wall structure is a major feature used in classifying these organisms.

67 Microorganisms affecting human health Fungi Fungi (mushroom, molds, and yeasts) are eukaryotic cells (with a true nucleus). Most fungi are multicellular and their cell wall is composed of chitin. They obtain nutrients by absorbing organic material from their environment (decomposers), through symbiotic relationships with plants (symbionts), or harmful relationships with a host (parasites). They form characteristic filamentous tubes called hyphae that help absorb material. The collection of hyphae is called mycelium. Fungi reproduce by releasing spores.

68 Microorganisms affecting human health Protozoa Protozoa are unicellular aerobic eukaryotes. They have a nucleus, complex organelles, and obtain nourishment by absorption or ingestion through specialized structures. They make up the largest group of organisms in the world in terms of numbers, biomass, and diversity. Their cell walls are made up of cellulose.Protozoa have been traditionally divided based on their mode of locomotion: flagellates produce their own food and use their whip-like structure to propel forward, ciliates have tiny hair that beat to produce movement, amoeboids have false feet or pseudopodia used for feeding and locomotion, and sporozoans are non-motile. They also have different means of nutrition, which groups them as autotrophs or heterotrophs.

69 Microorganisms affecting human health Algae Algae, also called cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, are unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes that obtain nourishment by photosynthesis. They live in water, damp soil, and rocks and produce oxygen and carbohydrates used by other organisms. It is believed that cyanobacteria are the origins of green land plants.

70 Harmful effects of pathogens on food, crop and property Food spoilage Food spoilage is the process of change in the physical and chemical properties of the food so that it becomes unfit for consumption. Food spoilage is any undesirable change in food. Most natural foods have a limited life: for example, fish, meat, milk and bread are perishable foods, which means they have a short storage life and they easily spoil. Other foods also decompose eventually, even though they keep for a considerably longer time. The main cause of food spoilage is invasion by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria.

71 Harmful effects of pathogens on food, crop and property prevention For the protection of food from microbial contamination and spoilage, it can be preserver by the following methods. 1.Prevention of contamination methods. 2.Killing of microorganisms by boiling, exposing to steam under pressure,Pasteuriation and radiation.

72 Some common diseases caused by pathogenic worm Threadworm Infection Definition Threadworm infection is an intestinal disease, which occasionally spreads to the skin, caused by a type of parasitic roundworm (helminth). In untr eated patients, the disease has a high rate of rein fection caused by worms already present in the body. This type of disease recurrence iscalled autoinfection. Be cause of autoinfection, threadworms can remain inside humans for aslong as 45 years after the initial infestation.

73 Some common diseases caused by pathogenic worm Treatment Threadworm infections are treated with medications.

74 FLATWORMS Flatworms are the simplest of the worm groups. There are about 20,000 species in this group. They are found many places and can be free living or parasitic. A parasite lives off of another living thing called a host and can be harmful. One of the best known flatworms is the tapeworm. The tapeworm can get into a person's digestive tract and grow to enormous lengths. The tapeworm then eats off the host and is dangerous to the host as it grows and consumes more of the host and its food. Flatworms are found in marine and fresh water.

75 Roundworms Phylum Nematoda Roundworms are a member of the nemathelminths phylum or group of animals. The hookworm, pinworm and trichinella are part of this group. They are more advanced than flatworms but less advanced than earthworms. They have thin round bodies, with none of the pieces or segments that earthworms have in their bodies. Roundworms live in salt water, fresh water and the soil. Many of them are harmful to man as they are parasites.

76 CONTROL The personal hygiene proper disposal of human faeces and thoroughly washed and properly cooked fruit and vegetable are key to control its infection.

77 Diseases transmitted by insects and ticks Insects (mosquitoes, lice, fleas, bed bugs) and ticks are able to transmit a number of diseases caused by infectious agents: viruses (chikungunya virus, yellow fever, dengue fever, etc.), bacteria (Lyme disease, plague, etc.), parasites (malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, filariasis, etc.).

78 Diseases transmitted by insects and ticks Mosquitoes There are different species of mosquitoes (Anopheles, Aedes, Culex) and these have completely different preferred habitats, times when they are active and types of bite. The lavae that produce the adults develop in areas of stagnant water (receptacles, reservoirs, ponds, lakes, etc.). They transmit certain specific diseases according to the specific species, climate and habitat: malaria (Anopheles), chikungunya virus, dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis.

79 Diseases transmitted by insects and ticks Mosquitoes Some other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in humans are yellow fever, dengue and filariasis etc. Control: 1.Personal protection to avoid mosquito bite. Use of mosquito nets. 2.Killing of adults mosquitoes by using insecticides fumigation 3.Killing of larvae by use of insecticide. 4.Elimination of breeding places. Filling water bodies with earth or srteening water surface with insecticides.

80 Diseases transmitted by insects and ticks Mosquitoes Some other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in humans are yellow fever, dengue and filariasis etc. Control: 5.Preventive medicine to enhance immunity against infection. 6.Use of mosquito repelling chemicals. 7.Biological control by introducing organisms eating upon the eggs and larvae of mosquitoes.

81 HOUSE FLY Flies are the carriers of very deadly diseases, they infest meat and other food items, some of their species also spread food poisoning bacteria like Salmonella enteritidis. Flies The habitat of flies make them perfectly suited for spreading diseases. Fly is a restless insect, it moves back and forth between food and filth and this helps it in spreading infections faster. It is attracted to the food by its sense of smell, however it cannot eat solid food. When it reaches the food it vomits on the solid food and creates a solution of it, then sucks it and thus contaminates the food.

82 HOUSE FLY Below, I have highlighted some diseases that are caused by flies: Flies can cause typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. They can also spread some other diseases like diarrhea and dysentery, cholera, conjunctivitis etc. by mechanical contamination. Other diseases carried by house flies include salmonella, anthrax and tuberculosis. They are also known to transmit the eggs of parasitic worms. Sand flies found in South America, Africa and Europe are carriers of a micro-organism responsible for a disease that eats away the human skin. This disease is known as Leishmaniasis.Leishmaniasis

83 HOUSE FLY 1.By protecting contamination of food by flies. 2.Control breeding of flies. 3.Killing adult flies (by spraying)

84 BACTERIA TYPES Bacteria that cause disease are broadly classified according to their shape. The four main groups include: Bacilli – shaped like a rod with a length of around 0.03mm. Illnesses such as typhoid and cystitis are caused by bacilli strains. Cocci – shaped like a sphere with a diameter of around 0.001mm. Depending on the sort, cocci bacteria group themselves in a range of ways, such as in pairs, long lines or tight clusters. Examples include Staphylococci (which cause a host of infections including boils) andGonococci (which cause the sexually transmissible infection gonorrhoea). Spirochaetes – as the name suggests, these bacteria are shaped like tiny spirals. Spirochaetes bacteria are responsible for a range of diseases, including the sexually transmissible infection syphilis. Vibrio – shaped like a comma. The tropical disease cholera, characterised by severe diarrhoea and dehydration, is caused by the vibrio bacteria.

85 BACTERIA TYPES Examples Bacillus anthracis — the causative agent of anthrax in humans and animals. Clostridium botulinum — releases the most powerful neurotoxin leading to death from botulism. Mycobacterium tuberculosis — the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis Mycobacterium leprae — the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease) Yersinia pestis — pneumonic, septicemic and the notorious bubonic plagues (aka "Black Death") Rickettsia prowazekii — the etiologic agent of typhus fever Bartonella spp.

86 CHOLERA Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium Called Vibrio cholerae.

87 CHOLERA Cholera Causes Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection. Common sources include: Municipal water supplies Ice made from municipal water Foods and drinks sold by street vendors Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes Raw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage

88 CONTROL Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene needs. The following materials cover the basics of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention.

89 TYPHOID Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It is also known as enteric fever, or commonly just typhoid. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are clinically indistinguishable diseases, collectively called enteric fever. It easily spreads through contaminated food and water supplies and close contact with others who are infected.

90 INFLUENZA The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu was such a pandemic. It was caused by an unusually severe and deadly influenza A virus. The victims were often healthy young adults in contrast from weakened and elderly who are usual victims. It killed around 100 million people or at least 5% of the world's population in 1918. SOME COMMON DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES

91 Since the disease spreads in places where human feces come into to contact with food and drinking water, prevention relies on careful food preparation and persistent hand washing. To prevent typhoid, people in endemic areas should avoid drinking untreated water, avoid raw fruits and vegetables, choose to consume hot foods where bacteria cannot survive, adequately clean household items, and avoid handling food if there is a risk of spreading the disease. CONTROL

92 Common Colds Common colds are the most seen diseases caused by viruses. Characterized by a runny nose, cough and sore throat, although harmless the common cold virus is caused by more than 200 viruses. This is an airborne infection and is transmitted through the nose and mouth. Chickenpox This virus can be spread to another person in 48 hours. It affects millions of children across the world annually. Its symptoms include red rashes with blisters accompanied by fever, headaches, cough and loss of appetite. The virus affects the chest, face, scalp and back areas.

93 Influenza The influenza virus affects large populations annually. Characterized by fever, headaches, muscle aches and sore throat, it is spread through the air when infected people cough or sneeze. It also leads to vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. Hemorrhagic Fever This is a deadly virus that can cause internal and external bleeding. It affects the vital internal organs of a human body especially the liver, kidneys and lungs. Although it starts with muscle aches and fever, it later affects the vascular system of the body. Once it gets in, it can make the blood vessels porous causing the patients to bleed from under the skin, in the eyes and mouth, both internally and externally.

94 Viral Hepatitis This inflammation of the liver is caused by 5 viruses namely, hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. It also results from other types of viral infections like the herpes simplex, yellow fever, Epstein- Barr and cytomegalovirus. Each of these has its own symptoms ranging from jaundice, low immunity and cirrhosis. It can be contracted through sexual contact and through blood. There are a variety of treatments available including antiviral vaccines. Herpes Simplex Caused by the sexually transmitted herpes simplex virus (HSV), it affects the genitals, mouth and face. The affected areas include the buttocks and anal areas. Newborn babies and people with lower immunity are more vulnerable to this virus. It comes in two types; the genital and oral virus. In some cases, it does not show any symptoms, but in other cases it is represented by itchy painful blisters. It is spread via direct contact and can be treated through medical treatment.

95 Viral Pneumonia The pneumonia virus affects the lungs causing them to swell and become irritated. Its symptoms feature coughs, shortness of breath, fever, and shaking chills. It also leads to loss of appetite, fatigue, low energy and a sharp stabbing chest pain. This inflammation is common in infants, HIV patients, cancer patients on chemotherapy treatment, organ transplant recipients and the aged who are vulnerable to infections. It is diagnosed by an X-ray, CT-scan and lung biopsy among other tests. It can be treated by antivirus medication, anti-inflammatory drugs and intake of fluids. Yellow Fever Common in sub-Saharan Africa and southern America, this tropical disease is caused by a mosquito transmitted virus. Its symptoms occur in stages including headache, muscle and joint aches, loss of appetite, vomiting, jaundice and fever. It leads to heart, kidney and liver failure, bleeding disorders, seizures and comas. It is diagnosed through a blood test and treatment is for the symptoms but no certain solution to yellow fever. It can be prevented by using a mosquito net and vaccination. Rabies This is one of the fatal diseases caused by viruses, which is evolved from infected animal bites. Its symptoms include fever, headache, agitation, excessive saliva, hallucinations, partial paralysis, and hydrophobia. Immediate medical attention is necessary.

96 Meningitis This enterovirus affects the protective cover around the spinal cord, brain and cerebrospinal fluid, i.e. the meninges. It affects the fluid surrounding the brain exposing it to the deadly meningitis caused by virus. It is a contagious disease, whose symptoms include high fever, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. AIDS The fatal illness caused is by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). HIV has adverse symptoms that include fever, rash, headache, sore throat, fever, mouth and genital ulcers, swollen lymph glands, joint pain, fatigue, weight loss, and diarrhea. After about 10 years later, untreated HIV becomes AIDS and its symptoms include chronic diarrhea, cough and shortness of breath, headache, skin rashes, blurred vision, unexplained fatigue, shaking chills and soaking night sweats. This condition should be treated in its earliest HIV stages to hinder its progressive development to AIDS.

97 Measles Characterized by cough, running nose, fever, inflamed eyes, and reddish skin rash, measles is caused a virus. Also referred to as rubeola, this disease is quite fatal in small children below 5 years. It is a children's infection that can be prevented by a vaccine. Viral Gastroenteritis Also known as the stomach flu, its signs include watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal crumbs, and fever. This is an intestinal infection spread through bodily contact and infected food or water. Like all other viral infections, it has no sure treatment hence preventive measures should be observed. Children, the aged, and lower immune persons are more susceptible to infection. Proper hand washing routine and food preparation hygiene are effective ways to prevent this disease.

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