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Measuring Evolution of Populations

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5 Agents of evolutionary change MutationGene Flow Genetic Drift Natural Selection Non-random mating

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Populations & Gene Pools Concepts a population is a localized group of interbreeding individuals a gene pool is a collection of alleles in the population an allele frequency is how common is that allele in the population how many A vs. a in whole population

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Evolution of Populations Evolution = change in allele frequencies in a population hypothetical: what conditions would cause allele frequencies to not change? non-evolving population REMOVE all agents of evolutionary change 1.very large population size (no genetic drift) 2.no migration (no gene flow in or out) 3.no mutation (no genetic change) 4.random mating (no sexual selection) 5.no natural selection (everyone is equally fit)

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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes populations that are not evolving Real populations rarely meet all five conditions Real population data is compared to a model Models are used to studying how populations evolve

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Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Hypothetical, non-evolving population preserves allele frequencies Serves as a model (null hypothesis) natural populations rarely in H-W equilibrium useful model to measure if forces are acting on a population Measuring evolutionary change W. Weinberg physician G.H. Hardy mathematician

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The Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to predict genotype frequencies in a population Predicted genotype frequencies are compared with actual frequencies used for traits in simple dominant-recessive systems "The Hardy-Weinberg equation is based on Mendelian genetics. It is derived from a simple Punnett square in which p is the frequency of the dominant allele and q is the frequency of the recessive allele." must know frequency of recessive homozygotes p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1

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Hardy-Weinberg Principle Counting Alleles assume 2 alleles = B, b frequency of dominant allele (B) = p frequency of recessive allele (b) = q frequencies must add to 1 (100%), so: p + q = 1 bbBbBB

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Hardy-Weinberg Principle Counting Individuals frequency of homozygous dominant: p x p = p 2 frequency of homozygous recessive: q x q = q 2 frequency of heterozygotes: (p x q) + (q x p) = 2pq frequencies of all individuals must add to 1 (100%), so: p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 bbBbBB

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H-W formulas Alleles:p + q = 1 Individuals:p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 bbBbBB BbBbbb

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What are the genotype frequencies? Using Hardy-Weinberg equation q 2 (bb): 16/100 =.16 0.4 q (b): √.16 = 0.4 0.6 p (B): 1 - 0.4 = 0.6 q 2 (bb): 16/100 =.16 0.4 q (b): √.16 = 0.4 0.6 p (B): 1 - 0.4 = 0.6 population: 100 cats 84 black, 16 white How many of each genotype? population: 100 cats 84 black, 16 white How many of each genotype? bbBbBB p 2 =.36 2pq=.48 q 2 =.16 Must assume population is in H-W equilibrium!

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