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The Core8e Sociology Michael Hughes Carolyn J. Kroehler
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter 4 Social Groups and Formal Organizations Social Groups and Formal Organizations Group Relationships Group Dynamics Formal Organizations Chapter Outline
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Dangerous driving behaviors are “strongly associated with the presence of peers” Group – two or more people bound in stable patterns of social interaction, sharing a sense of unity We make groups real by treating them as real Social Groups and Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Primary and Secondary Groups Primary group – small, intimate, informal, interactive Crucial to socialization Meets most of our personal needs Example: German Wehrmacht Secondary group – 2+ people, impersonal; together for specific purpose Group Relationships
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. In-groups and Out-groups In-group – a group we belong to and identify with Provides us with social identities Out-group – a group we do not belong to nor identify with Boundaries – discontinuities in social interaction; heightened by competition Group Relationships
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reference Groups Reference groups – social units we use for appraising and shaping attitudes, feelings, and actions May or may not be a membership group Normative and comparative functions Relative deprivation Group Relationships
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Size Dyads –Most intense and influential relationships –Delicate balance between parties Triads –Most consequential step-ups in group size Fives –Best small group size for decision- making Group Dynamics
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Leadership Leaders are group members who exert more influence than others Instrumental leader Expressive leader Leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire, mixed Group Dynamics
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Loafing Individuals exert less in groups Social Dilemmas Situations where members have a conflict between personal interests and group interests Hardin’s “tragedy of the commons” Free-rider mechanism Group Dynamics
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Groupthink Example: Bay of Pigs in 1961 Groupthink – in highly cohesive groups, members become so preoccupied with consensus that they lose their critical faculties Example: Challenger disaster in 1986 Group Dynamics
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conformity Groups exert powerful social pressure Muzafer Sherif’s Spot of Light study (1936) Solomon Asch’s Line Length study (1952) Desire to be correct / desire to be accepted Group Dynamics
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. A formal organization is a group deliberately created for the achievement of specific objectives. Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Formal Organizations Etzioni’s three types (1975): Voluntary – members enter and leave freely Coercive – members against their will –Mental hospital, prison, military –Total institutions, resocialization, mortification, degradation ceremonies Utilitarian – accomplish tasks Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. A bureaucracy is a social structure made up of a hierarchy of statuses and roles that is prescribed by explicit rules and procedures and based on a division of function and authority. Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bureaucracy Early bureaucracies based on patrimonialism Growth of bureaucracy is response to growth of industrialism –Structural units and divisions –Synchronization and integration –Planning and coordination –Focus on process Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Bureaucracies 1.Clearly defined duties and responsibilities 2.Hierarchy of authority 3.Consistent system of abstract rules and regulations 4.Offices with qualifications based on technical competence 5.Positions are property of the organization 6.Employment by organization is called a “career” 7.Extensive permanent, written documentation Characteristics of Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Problems of Bureaucracy The Iron Law of Oligarchy (Michels) Dysfunctions include: –Focus not on customer –Relentless growth (e.g., U.S. Government) –Trained incapacity Bureaucracy is an Idealized Model –Human beings Social context –Designed for average Model incomplete Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict Perspective Organizational goals serve those in power Marx: Factory is a despotic regime Stone: Factory structured to isolate workers, break power of skilled workers, and combat labor movement Collectives focus on products of immediate social value rather than products for profit Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective People are active agents Organizations are the framework Classic study by Strauss (1964) –Chicago-area psychiatric hospitals –Negotiated order –Outside vs. inside view Zimmerman’s ethnomethodology Formal Organizations
©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Humanizing Bureaucracies Employee Participation –Participative management –Autonomous work groups –Informal, “no-collar” approach Alternative work schedules Virtual offices Specialized benefits Employee stock ownership Formal Organizations
Chapter 5 Groups and organizations Social Groups Group Characteristics and Dynamics Formal Organizations in Global Perspective Alternative Forms of Organization.
Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations. Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another Category – a cluster of people who share.
Sociology & Groups Unit 4. Group Types Social Groups ◦ Primary Groups ◦ Secondary Groups Relationships ◦ Primary Relationships ◦ Secondary Relationships.
Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline Social Groups Group Characteristics and Dynamics Formal Organizations in Global Perspective Alternative.
Social Groups and Formal Organizations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS 1. DEFINITION OF SOCIAL GROUP: TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT FREQUENTLY AND SHARE A COMMON IDENTITY.
Chapter six: Social Groups and Formal Organizations.
Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations. Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 5.1 Types of Social Groups Define what a social group is and describe types of groups.
Social Groups, Organizations and Social Institutions Chapter 6.
( 1 of 12 ) Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations. ( 2 of 12 ) Aggregate –Same place, same time –Little in common Category –Similar characteristics –Do not.
Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS. Sociology, Tenth Edition SOCIAL GROUP A social group is defined as Two or more people, Who identify with.
Chapter 6- Groups and Organizations. Types of Groups Group: any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact regularly.
Chapter 5 Social Groups and Formal Organizations.
Groups & Organizations “Groups & Organizations” Instructor: Saba Nasir 2 Social Groups “Two or more people who identify & interact with one.
Social Structure and Group Behavior Sociology, Chapter 3.
CHAPTER 5. SOCIAL GROUPS The clusters of people with whom we interact in our daily lives.
Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World Chapter 4 Groups and Organizations.
Chapter 6 Interaction in Groups Key Terms. Social category A collection of individuals who are grouped together because they share a trait deemed by the.
Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations. Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another Not every collection of individuals forms.
GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS Groups are essence of life in society. They stand between the individual and the larger society. Society is the largest and most.
Social Groups and Organizations Chapter 6. Learning Objectives Distinguish between primary and secondary groups. Explain the functions of groups.
1 The Subject Is Organizations I. What is a Formal Organization? Special type of secondary group designated to allow a relatively large number of people.
Social Interaction, Social Structure, and Groups Chapter 5.
Chapter 6 Groups and Societies Everyone seeks a sense of belonging. A social group: two or more people who identify and interact with one another.
Chapter 6. Group: consists of at least 2 or more people who share one or more goals and think, feel & behave in similar ways -in regular contact -take.
Chapter 6 Social Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline The Nature of Groups Functions of Groups Small Groups Large Groups: Associations
Groups and Organizations. Types of Groups n Primary n Secondary n Reference n Ingroup n Outgroup.
Soc 101 Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations. Make a list of the various groups to which you belong. Make a list of the various groups to which you belong.
Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination Concept of the Group Types of Groups Social Interaction in Groups.
People who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another Provide intimate relationships and a sense of belonging Groups.
Groups and Formal Organizations. Goals to be Met Goal 4: The learner will demonstrate an understanding of the importance of groups and organizations in.
Building Blocks of Social Structure Chapter 4 – Section 1.
© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger1 Interaction, Groups and Organizations From Individuals to Bureaucracies.
Groups & Organizations Chapter 6. Groups Social group: collection of people who interact frequently, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling.
Chapter 6 Groups And Organizations Types of Groups Social Influence Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies Diversity: Race, Gender, and Class in Organizations.
GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS Macionis, Sociology Chapter Seven.
Groups and Organizations Sociology, 13 h Edition by John Macionis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociology, 12 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Groups and Organizations.
Societies and Social Networks Chapter 6 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach.
Social Groups. Groups within Society Groups are the foundation of social life. Setting membership boundaries, choosing leaders, fulfilling goals, and.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section.
© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer.
Groups and Organizations How do groups influence you? © Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D. 1.
Social Groups andOrganizations Chapter 6. Social group Consists of a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain.
1 Chapter 3 Primary and Secondary Groups Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs. Secondary.
Chapter 10 Understanding Work Groups and Teams McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Networks and Organizations Chapter 5 Lecture PowerPoint © W. W. Norton & Company, 2008.
Social Structure The Haves and the Haves Not. Status The position individuals hold in society based on defined characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity.
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