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JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal.

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Presentation on theme: "JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal."— Presentation transcript:

1 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell'Informazione Giuridica CNR Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell'Informazione Giuridica CNR Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica Università degli Studi di Firenze Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica Università degli Studi di Firenze Automatic Translation from Textual Representations of Laws to Formal Models through UML Pietro Mercatali Francesco Romano Pietro Mercatali Francesco Romano ITTIG-CNR { mercatali, romano ITTIG-CNR Luciano Boschi Emilio Spinicci Luciano Boschi Emilio Spinicci DSI { boschi, spinicci DSI

2 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 22 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML OutlineOutline Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML UML Modelling of the contents of a legislative text and of the applied amendments; LexLooter plug-in Tool functionalities: UML instantiation, generation of coordinated text; Application example; Conclusions and future perspectives

3 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 33 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML IntroductionIntroduction Motivations: Legislative text contents liable to Express Textual Amendments (ETAs) may present intelligibility problems Support for recognition and validation can be achieved using NLP and IE tools&techniques (XML markup); Formal representation of legislative contents (UML); Automatic generation of the coordinated text; Goal: Implementing a suitable software tool for automatic processing a legislative text prone to several ETAs LexLooter;

4 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 44 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML OutlineOutline Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives

5 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 55 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Express Textual Amendment (Novella) Kind of normative nexus, where an active disposition affects the passive one, by modifying its text; Coordinated (Enforced) Text Express Textual Amendment Root Law repeal insertion substitution

6 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 66 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML 2. La presente legge e' finalizzata all'applicazione dei principi di efficienza e di trasparenza nei procedimenti amministrativi, al perseguimento contestuale del servizio al singolo cittadino e della tutela degli interessi pubblici e collettivi. ETA example Regional Statute 43/2003, article 1, comma 1 (ETA) Regional Statute 52/1999, article 1, comma 2 (Root Law) 1. In article 1, comma 2, of Regional Statute October 14, 1999, n. 52 (Norme sulle concessioni, le autorizzazioni e le denunce d'inizio delle attivita' edilizie [...]), after the words "procedimenti amministrativi," are inserted the following: "al soddisfacimento dei bisogni sociali ed".

7 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 77 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML ETA example Regional Statute 43/2003, article 1, comma 1 (ETA) Regional Statute 52/1999, article 1, comma 2 (Root Law, modified) 2. La presente legge e' finalizzata all'applicazione dei principi di efficienza e di trasparenza nei procedimenti amministrativi, al soddisfacimento dei bisogni sociali ed al perseguimento contestuale del servizio al singolo cittadino e della tutela degli interessi pubblici e collettivi. 1. In article 1, comma 2, of Regional Statute October 14, 1999, n. 52 (Norme sulle concessioni, le autorizzazioni e le denunce d'inizio delle attivita' edilizie [...]), after the words "procedimenti amministrativi," are inserted the following: "al soddisfacimento dei bisogni sociali ed".

8 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 88 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML UML Modelling Modelling Legislative Acts A UML Class Diagram including: Structure of the Text; Amendment Dispositions; Instantiating Class Diagram for each legislative act Generating one Object Diagram (UML 2.0) for each analysed act Processing algorithms for: Search of partitions and amendment dispositions; ETA application to Root Models; Verification of instatiated structures;

9 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 99 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Package NIR Law type, number date... Articles Partitions Titolo Articolo Comma... Text Elements Corpo Rubrica... Structure

10 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1010 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Associated to the partitions of the Novella Repeals Insertions Substitutions Text strings or entire partitions References to Law partitions Associated to the partitions of the Novella Repeals Insertions Substitutions Text strings or entire partitions References to Law partitions ETA

11 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1111 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Change Class Allow tracking of applied amendments Included in: Legge (Law) Class Text Elements Partitions Change Class Allow tracking of applied amendments Included in: Legge (Law) Class Text Elements Partitions Coordinated model

12 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1212 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Adopted Information Extraction tools LexEdit XXI A tool by ITTIG and CELI s.r.l. for XML structural marking and checking of a legislative text; Sophia 2.1 A general-purpose FSA linguistic parser developed by CELI s.r.l., used for automatic recognition and XML marking of ETAs;

13 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1313 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Document Processing Root Law ETA Root Model XML LEXXI XML LEXXI XML Sophia ETA Model Coordinated Model Structure Model

14 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1414 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Model generation Root model Coordinated Model 1 ETA Model 2 Coordinated Model 2 ETA Model 3 Coordinated Model T0T0 T1T1 T3T3 T2T2 ETA Model 1

15 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1515 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML OutlineOutline Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives

16 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1616 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML LexLooterLexLooter Main Features Plug-in for Eclipse 3.0 framework; OO Design; Integrates UML2 Eclipse library; Functionalities Implementation of the proposed methodology Parsing of XML documents produced by LexEdit XXI and Sophia 2.1 Instatiating UML model of the analyzed act Verification of the applied amendments Generation of the Coordinated Text Analysis of the text currently in force

17 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1717 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Root Law ETA Root Model LEXXI XML LEXXI XML Sophia XML ETA Model Coordinated Model Structure Model Example of Coordinated Model

18 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1818 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Coordinated Text Generation Coordinated model is converted in HTML using XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language) Transformation;

19 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 1919 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Coordinated Text Generation

20 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2020 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Text in force Analysis Root Model ETA Model 1 Coordinated Model 1 ETA Model 2 Coordinated Model 2

21 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2121 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Novella Express Textual Amendments Marked by Sophia Applied by LexLooter Str. RepealStr. Subst.Str. Ins.Str. RepealStr. Subst.Str. Ins. Part.RepealPart. Subst.Part.Ins. Part.RepealPart. Subst.Part.Ins. L.R. 13/ L.R. 43/ Overall LexLooter successfully applied 39 of 42 ETAs marked by Sophia (93%) Application Example: Tuscany Statute 52/1999

22 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2222 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Unmodelled amendments Presence of typing errors (2) prevent correct matching with text extraction regex; Missing structural XML markup of the text added by an amendment (1) partition (e.g. a comma) replaced by more partitions (more commas); text added by an amendment appears quoted in the novella and cannot be marked by LexEdit Text normalisation currently implemented (blank removing, quotes reduction, …); Text normalisation Regex refinement and better LexEdit integration will allow structural markup of added partitions;

23 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2323 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Unmarked amendments are also taken into account; Sophia only marks well formed amendments according to modern drafting rules LexLooter can estimate the number of unmarked amendments using suitable regex matching in the text outside Sophia markups Suitable warnings notify the number of estimated unmarked amendments or incorrect marking, as well as of unmodelled elements unmarked amendments unmodelled elements Unmarked Amendments

24 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2424 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Next Developments Extending Sophia marking rules in order bad formed amendments to appear in the UML diagram; Implementation of a verification algorithm to validate the modelled amendments Correctness attributes in Change Class to be instantiated in case of well formed or bad formed amendments Correctness attributes (to be notified with suitable warning messages)

25 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2525 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML OutlineOutline Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives Introduction Information Extraction&Modelling of Express Textual Amendments using UML LexLooter plug-in Conclusions and future perspectives

26 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2626 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML ConclusionsConclusions The LexLooter prototype has shown its potential as a tool supporting the recognition of a legislative text liable to express textual amendments; as a tool supporting the validation and verification of a legislative text; Further improvements include: Definition of OCL structural constraints for the validation of the structure of model, according to legislative drafting; UML Interaction Omondo EclipseUML / GMF Experimentation on an extended corpus of legislative acts is also a priority.

27 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2727 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Future Work Interfacing with NirEditor and adaptation of metadata (DTD NiR) Evolution of the adopted UML model Inclusion of further structural and textual information Article differentiated being-in-force Non-standard structures Conditioned amendments Extension of the methodology to other documentation Administrative acts

28 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2828 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Open Issues (1) As in other projects, the main goal of this work is to intercept the semantics of a text by adopting textual linguistic analysis techniques. The textual linguistic postulates three main levels constituting the communicative act: textual inter-textual extra-textual

29 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 2929 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Open Issues (2) We call it the pre-situational and static model The model represents a text which does not take into account factual situations however which interacts in the determining (in continuous evolution) of the meaning of the text itself. We link the pre-situational model to a normativistic model which represents the general and abstract legal rule. Instead the situational model, is the model obtained after the positioning of the utterance in the factual situation. We link the situational model to the interpretative model. This model represents the interpreted norm. In this work the implemented model is built within textual and inter-textual levels without considering the extra- textual one.

30 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3030 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Open Issues (3) We consider the first institute saturated within textual and inter-textual levels and the second one as a result of the interaction between textual, inter-textual and extra-textual levels. In Italian jurisprudence, the difference between enforcement and effectiveness is often exemplified by the war criminal code: in peace time the code is certainly enforced but not effective. The effectiveness will depend upon wartime declaration, but also from real situations not calculable by a representative model of the legislative system being extraneous to the system itself. The war criminal code considers, in fact, cases of automatic effectiveness (application) of war criminal law connected to some events, without the needs of a bill, order or other and, in particular, the war declaration which effects, for general rule, the application of the war criminal code (art. 3 c.p.m.g.) On one hand, the enforcement is implemented by a model built only in the textual and inter-textual level, on the other, the effectiveness to be intercepted demands the covering of the extra-textual level. In the following, we exemplify this through the difference between enforcement and effectiveness

31 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3131 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Open Issues (4) The building of the situational/interpretative model demands the representation of events and the dynamic interaction between the events and the text. We believe UML, a notation potentially able to represent also extra- textual level for the implementation of more efficient interpretative models for the evaluation of the normative product which can be adopted not only by the legislator, but also by lawyers who apply and interpret the law. Modelling such events and situations needs different UML notations w.r.t. the static diagrams adopted to represent textual and inter-textual levels. UML notations for the description of dynamic aspects (i.e. sequence, activity diagrams) should be adopted to model extra-textual level and its interaction with the text. We hope that the proposed issue receives the critical attention from the computer/law community to be developed or demolished.

32 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3232 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Thank you for your attention!

33 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 JURIX 2005 – 18 th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems Bruxelles, December 8, 2005 Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell'Informazione Giuridica CNR Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche dell'Informazione Giuridica CNR Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica Università degli Studi di Firenze Dipartimento di Sistemi e Informatica Università degli Studi di Firenze Automatic Translation from Textual Representations of Laws to Formal Models through UML Pietro Mercatali Francesco Romano Pietro Mercatali Francesco Romano ITTIG-CNR { mercatali, romano ITTIG-CNR Luciano Boschi Emilio Spinicci Luciano Boschi Emilio Spinicci DSI { boschi, spinicci DSI

34 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3434 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Additional Slides

35 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3535 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML IntroductionIntroduction Expertise of DSI and ITTIG Experience on information extraction&modelling of technical documentation Patents, Software Requirements Specifications; Experience in analysing legislative texts using structural and semantic information extraction techniques Structural XML marking: NormeInRete (NIR) project, NIR DTDs ; Semantic analysis of Express Textual Amendments;

36 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3636 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Detection of Sophia unmarked or incorrectly marked amendments Possible wrong tags Assessment of unmarked amendments Warnings after Sophia XML Analysis

37 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3737 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Modelling notifications Further warnings may be produced at the end of the UML modelling phase typing errors missing structural markup of added text

38 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3838 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Unmodelled amendments Text Normalisation currently implemented: emphasized characters (è, é e') quotes (e.g.: '', ` ´ ' ) removing unnecessary XML tags for the generation of the coordinated text (e.g.: references tag […] ) blank removing Next implementation: Refinement of regular expressions for text extraction Integration with LexEdit for the markup of added text

39 P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci P. Mercatali, F. Romano L. Boschi, E. Spinicci 3939 Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Automatic Translation from Textual Representation of Laws to Formal Models through UML Next Developments Example of coordinated model with verified amendment correctness:


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