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Fear and death Hunger, plague, wars During the Middle Ages, life is marked by obsessive feelings: fear. What are these fears in Middle Ages? People are.

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Presentation on theme: "Fear and death Hunger, plague, wars During the Middle Ages, life is marked by obsessive feelings: fear. What are these fears in Middle Ages? People are."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Fear and death Hunger, plague, wars During the Middle Ages, life is marked by obsessive feelings: fear. What are these fears in Middle Ages? People are afraid of hunger and famine. What are the causes of a bad harvest? The passage of soldiers, natural events such as floods, drought, violent storms. glossary 2

3 Fear of illnesses: they dont know the causes and the cures. Fear of the plague: pestilence makes a lots of victims. Fear of death. People often see parents, relatives and friends die. glossary 3

4 Da Cronache dellanno mille di Rodolfo il Glabro (980-1047) In seguito la fame cominciò a diffondersi in ogni parte del mondo, minacciando di morte quasi tutta lumanità. Le condizioni climatiche erano così sconvolte che non arrivava mai il momento opportuno per nessuna semina né il tempo utile per la mietitura, soprattutto a causa delle inondazioni. Pareva che gli elementi lottassero tra loro in reciproco conflitto, mentre è certo che infliggevano una punizione alla superbia degli uomini… Ogni strato della popolazione fu colpito dalla penuria di cibo; ricchi e meno ricchi diventavano smorti per la fame quanto i poveri; le angherie dei potenti si arrestarono di fronte alla generale indigenza… Frattanto, dopo essersi cibata di quadrupedi ed uccelli, la gente, sotto i morsi tremendi della fame, cominciò a prendere per nutrimento ogni sorta di carne, anche di bestie morte e altre cose schifose. Taluni cercarono di sfuggire alla morte mangiando radici silvestri e piante acquatiche, ma inutilmente: non si trova scampo allira vendicatrice di Dio, se non rivolgendosi a sé stessi. Si inorridisce a descrivere le perversioni a cui lumanità andò soggetta. In quel tempo - oh sventura! - la furia della fame costrinse gli uomini a divorare carne umana, come solo di rado si era sentito in passato. 4 glossary

5 The idea of death is connected to: - the fear of the divine punishment because of peoples sins; - the fear of the end of the world (people think that it is before 1000 AD). glossary 5

6 CLOZE _____ is an obsessive _______ in Middle Ages. People fears ______ and _________. ___________ are often bad because of the passage of _________ and because of _________ or _________. There are lots of ____________: they dont know the _________ and the ________. For example, the __________ kills lots of people. Man is also afraid of ___ ________ __________ and of the end of the ______. They wait for it to come _________ 1000 __. glossary 6

7 Questions What are the terrible fears of man in Middle Ages? What are the reasons for a bad harvest? Why are they so afraid of illnesses? Is there a very terrible illness? What do they wait for before 1000 AD? glossary 7

8 Ex 3) Invent and draw some symbols on the Middle Agess fears Ex 4) Practise with your partner on the glossary glossary 8

9 GLOSSARY 1 Sentimento ossessionante - obsessive/terrifying/haunting feeling Paura - fear Morte - death Fame - hunger Peste - plague Guerra - war Carestia - famine Sfortuna, sventura – misfortune Raccolto - harvest Povertà - poverty Soldati - soldiers Siccità - drought Alluvioni - floods Tempeste - storms Fenomeni naturali - natural events Malattie - diseases, illnesses Cause - causes, reasons Cure - cures Epidemia epidemic Vittime - victims Punizione - punishment Peccati - sins Fine del mondo - the end of the world Contadino - peasant 2345678

10 A new prosperity. The population increase. Before the year 1000 AD, Europe is not a densely populated continent. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the number of its inhabitants further decreases. YEARSMilanFlorence 1050 45 000 inhabitants 25 000 inhabitants 1150 85 000 inhabitants 45 000 inhabitants 1200 100 000 inhabitants 70 000 inhabitants 10 glossary

11 YEARSMilanFlorence 1050 45 000 inhabitants 25 000 inhabitants 1150 85 000 inhabitants 45 000 inhabitants 1200 100 000 inhabitants 70 000 inhabitants Questions 1.Is the chart about the centuries before or the centuries after the year 1000? 2.What is the chart about? 3.How many inhabitants are there in Milan in 1050? And in 1150? And in 1200? 4.How many inhabitants has Florence got in 1050? And in 1150? And in 1200? 5.Do the inhabitants in Milan and Florence increase or decrease between 1150 and 1200? glossary 11

12 GLOSSARY 2 Aumento - rising/increase Prosperità - prosperity Continente - continent Abitanti - inhabitants Crescere - to grow Fattori - factors Stabilità - stability Popoli nomadi - nomadic people Pace - peace Condizioni - conditions Lontano – far away Progressi - progress, improvement Tabella – chart Adesso - now Agricoltura - agriculture Produzione - production Generi alimentari - food Alimentazione - food habits Vivere - to live Figli - children Resistere - to resist Densamente - densely Caduta – fall Diminuire – decrease Aumentare – increase Ulteriormente – further Secolo - century 1011121315 14 12

13 A series of factors produce a new stability and prosperity: The invasions of nomadic people. Peasants can cultivate fields that are also far away from the castle. There arent plague and other illnesses for two centuries many cultivated fields PEACE decrease of deaths glossary 13

14 Progress in agriculture Increase of food Now, the conditions of life are good Improvements glossary 14

15 DRAW Draw a picture that shows the improvements in the life of the Middle Ages CLOZE 2 In the first centuries ______ the year 1000 AD, there is an _________ of the __________. There is a period of ________: __________ people dont cross Europe and there arent _____. There is a progress in ______________ and there is more _________. The conditions of life are ___________. glossary Practise with your partner on the glossary SPEAK 15

16 TIMELINE 0 1000500 15002012

17 The hard life of peasants in the Middle Ages The number of cultivated fields increase. The quality and the quantity of the products increase. Landowners give peasants their fields for a long period of years. 17 glossary

18 broad beanslentils peas These plants are rich with proteins, they are very nutrient. Peasants have now good food for them and their family. 18 glossary

19 Before 1000 AD: two-year rotation ½ cultivated field (harvest) ½ fallow field (no harvest) 19 glossary

20 First year Second year Third year wheat fallow legumes wheat fallow legumes wheat fallow legumes After 1000 AD: three-year rotation 20 glossary

21 Extend the number of fields and the productivity Change the crops and the food To use the fallow fields to breed animals Winter crops Permanent crops Fallow Village Meadows Woods The three-year rotation helps peasants to: 21 glossary

22 1. DRAW Draw a picture that shows the new crops and write their names in English 2. DRAW Use the drawings from the links above and draw an example of a three-year rotation. (Write the names of the crops in English.) http://www.parodos.it/storia/storia2/larotazionecolturale.htm http://www.lestoriedellastoria.it/Costume_medioevale.html 22 glossary

23 Horses are useful because they are fast and strong 23 glossary

24 Peasants use a new plow. The new plow has an iron plowshare; it is heavy. It digs deeply under the ground. The ground becomes fertile. The harvest is rich. Iron plowshare 24 glossary

25 Classical harness Medieval harness The new harness is on the horses shoulders. It isnt around its neck. The horse works without strangling. 25 glossary

26 Peasants now use the power of water and of the wind. Water (rivers) and wind start the millstones. The millstones turn around and the mill works. http://www.salviani.it/geo/mulino/mulino.html 26 glossary

27 1) After the year 1000 AD the number of the cultivated fields decrease 2) The three-year rotation increases productivity 3) Only oxen are used to plow the fields 4) The new plow strangles horses 5) Peasants now cultivate borad beans, peas and lentils 5) The new plow has a plowshare made with iron 6) The corn is cultivated in the fallow fields 7) Wind and water give power to the mills True or false? 27 glossary

28 CLOZE After the year 1000 AD there are some _________________. Peasants divide the field in _______ parts: it is the three-year _______________. A part is not cultivated: it is the ____________. The other two parts are cultivated. New plants are cultivated: ____________, ____________ and ____________. Peasants have good food for their family. There is a new type of __________: it has the plowshare made with ________. There is a new ____________ for horses. Now horses _______ without strangling. The power of _______________ and ________________ start the millstones. 28 glossary

29 GLOSSARY 3 1718192120 29 2223242625 2827 Innovation - Innovazione Useful domain - Dominio utile Landowner - Proprietario di terre Three-year rotation - Rotazione triennale Colture, crops - Coltura Use - Uso Wind - Vento Period - Periodo Land, field - Terreno Productivity - Produttività Cultivate - Coltivare Plant - Pianta Broad bean - Fava Lentil - Lenticchia Peas – Piselli Turnip - Rapa Corn - Grano Maggese - Fallow Proteina - protein Ricco - rich Nutriente - nutrient Allevare - breed Terreno – land Prodotto - product Resistente/forte - strong Agile/veloce – swift, fast Aratro - plow Versorio - plowshare Ferro - iron Profondità – depht Profondo – deep Profondamente - deeply Usare - use Attacco - harness Collo - neck Spalla - shoulder Soffocare - strangle Fiume - river Azionare/far funzionare - start Forza - strength Macina – millstone Mulino - mill Girare - turn Utile - useful Scavare - dig Fertile - fertile


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