Promoting Unity This was difficult for the new leaders of Africa –Africans felt more loyalty to ethnic groups, tribes, families and villages –Felt little attachment to distant central governments in faraway capitals
Promoting Unity Economic differences were another obstacle to unifying the disparate people of Africa –Some Africans lived in areas rich in resources, others were poor farmers –Some Africans had benefited from European rule, many had not…
Promoting Unity Political borders were a final obstacle to unification –Europeans had drawn political borders at the Berlin Conference Had no regard for location of tribes –These borders by and large become the borders of newly independent nations of Africa Some rivals placed in the same nation; some tribes split by political borders
Case Study: The Congo Wins independence in 1960; –14 million people belong to hundreds of ethnic groups and regions; –Each has its own goals
Case Study: The Congo Civil war begins when Katanga province tries to separate –Long fight to bring it back
Case Study: The Congo Dictator Mobutu Sese Seko took control and ruled the country from 1965 – 1997 –Changes name to Zaire in 1970 Civil war resumes after he returns; disparate groups not held together by strong leader… –**Benefit of dictatorship? Connection to Iraq? This fighting prevents the Congo from developing as a nation –Similar cases arise in Rwanda and elsewhere
Establishing Governments In many African nations, the military took power in order to bring order and promote progress. –Used brutal methods to stay in power –Though their original intentions may have been benevolent, they often became corrupt Why would people prefer military rule to other types of governments? What does military rule promote?
Establishing Governments In other nations, African leaders set up one-party governments –Believed that competing political parties created divisions within society –One-party rule is similar to traditional African values of consensus **What are the disadvantages of one-party rule?
Establishing Governments The most successful and stable nations are those that eventually made the move towards democratization –They allowed many different parties, held open elections, and removed military or one-party rulers **Examples include Cote d’Ivoire, Gabon, Kenya and Senegal
Building Economies African governments needed to determine the type of economic system they would use – Main question : How much of the economy would government control?
Building Economies Some African nations chose Socialism –Government owns major industries, –Exercises a great deal of control over business, but still allows some investment Africans felt this system would benefit them the most –Would take care of basic needs, health care and education –Also would make all Africans equal and end the privileges of the few **By and large, these nations found little success…
Building Economies Most African nations today have a mixed economy –Government owns only basic industries; controls certain other segments of the population –Allows for a great deal of private business and investment
A Little Help From My Friends…? –These companies will invest in Africa’s resources; this helps the African economies ** Downside : much of the profit leaves Africa… Some African nations are turning to multinational corporations for help –These are large businesses with branches in many different nations
Economic Challenges Economic Dependence –Many African nations are dependent on a single crop for export or must import vital needs –If the price on the world market changes drastically, the country is hard hit **Example of oil: many nations must import; left vulnerable to outside forces
The Population Explosion Africa’s population has risen steadily since independence –Currently 800 million; high birth rate has recently been moderated by impact of AIDS –Projected to double by 2025 Consequences: –Strain on government resources –Changing ideas about families
Review : Give one reason why Africans had trouble promoting unity after becoming independent. What was one cause of the civil war in the Congo? Who took power and stopped it? What 3 types of governments existed in Africa after independence? What type of economy do most African nations have today? How will Africa’s population change in the next 20 years?