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The Risorgimento 1790 - 1849 1796 Napoleons conquest of Italy 1797 Venice is placed under Austrian sovereignty The Cisalpine Republic (under Napoleons.

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Presentation on theme: "The Risorgimento 1790 - 1849 1796 Napoleons conquest of Italy 1797 Venice is placed under Austrian sovereignty The Cisalpine Republic (under Napoleons."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Risorgimento

3 1796 Napoleons conquest of Italy 1797 Venice is placed under Austrian sovereignty The Cisalpine Republic (under Napoleons control) included Bologna, Ferrara and Milan Liguria and Genoa became the Ligurian republic In Rome (1797-8) a republic was established Time of great hopes and expectations. The triennio, ideological foundation of the RISORGIMENTO (Vittorio Alfieri) 1798 In Naples the Parthenopean republic

4 1800 Napoleon names the Cisalpine the Italian republic 1804 Napoleon crowns himself emperor. Italian republics become kingdoms Napoleons code is introduced a) excessive respect for private property b) rights of workers were not emphasizes c) authority of the father emphasized Negatives a) tax increases b) conscription c) looting of art

5 1813 Napoleons defeat at Leipzig 1814 Napoleons exile on Elba 1815 Napoleons return to France (100 days), defeat at Waterloo, final exile on Saint Elena (dies on May 5th, 1821) 1815 The Council of Vienna (Metternich) Absolute monarchs return to Italy Piedmont: Vittorio Emanuele I Naples: Ferdinand Parma, Modena, Tuscany: Rulers related to the Habsburgs

6 Restoration represented a less than hoped return to a previous age Professional classes, intellectuals and Napoleons soldiers had hoped for a more representative political system Secret societies were formed and were composed of intellectuals, members of the educated class, army officers Carbonari: revolutionary ideals and methods, demands were not extreme (constitution) Masons: low abiding, no threat to the regime

7 Carbonari riots in Turin and Naples: constitutions granted and then recalled Prince Metternich (Troppeau Doctrine) assures complete control of all revolutionary movements in Italy Giuseppe Mazzinis republican goals: a) Independence b) Unity c) Freedom for the Individual Nationalism : a romantic reaction to the ideals of the Enlightenment

8 The Enlightenment had believed in the universal (rational laws and behavior could be applied universally). The Romantics proclaimed the importance of the individual (values, emotion, imagination); on the political level this ideology translates into an emphasis on national characteristics and diversities In Italy Mazzini (Genova, 1805). Studied law. Wrote passionate essays in defence of Romanticism. Envisioned a movement for Italian nationhood and political freedom. Main philosophical influences are Johann Gottfried Herder and Saint Simon Formed the Giovane Italia in failed attempt at an insurrection: Turin and Genua

9 1834 Another attempt fails. Exile in Switzerland until 1837 During the exile Mazzini establishes La giovane Europa From 1837 Mazzini settles in England (will be in Rome during the Roman Republic) Gioberti ( ) Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians: suggested a path for future greatness. He envisioned a conferderation of Italian states ruled by the pope. Cesare Balbo: The Hopes of Italy. Envisions a united state under the military leadership of Piedmont Massimo dAzeglio. Believes that the public pressure in favor of Italian independence will ultimately drive the Austrians out

10 Piedmont 1847 Carlo Alberto follows Pius IXs example, newspapers are founded and in 1848 the Statuto is issued. It will become the basis for the future Italian constitution (1861) Monarchy was still in power; a two chamber parliament; the upper selected by the crown, the lower elected by literate tax payers 1848: Metternich is forced to resign. Hungary and the Tchecs demand liberal institutions. At this time Milan rises against Austria. After five days (le cinque giornate di Milano) general Radetzky is forced to withdraw Carlo Cattaneo, economist and political scientist envisioned Italy as it was to become: a federal (regional) republic

11 The Milanese conservative aristocrats took over the power and asked the annexation of Lombardy into the Piedmontese state Carlo Alberto declares war on Austria (March 23, 1848), Venice declares its desire to be annexed to Piedmont (Daniele Manin fails to organize the Venetians who are inclined to form an independent republic) In April the pope withdraws his forces, Austria attacks and defeats Piedmont at Custoza and reoccupies Lombardy Giuseppe Garibaldi ( ) returned to Italy after fighting in South America and is placed in command of the Roman republics army, while Mazzini has executive powers. The repubic was defeated by the French

12 Carlo Alberto wages war on Austria again and again is defeated. Abdicates and dies in Portugal Venice is again a republic but is defeated by Austria Age of Romanticism in Italy : Melodrama Gioacchino Rossini ( ) Gaetano Donizetti ( ) Vincenzo Bellini ( ) Literature : Alessandro Manzoni (I promessi sposi) Ippolito Nievo (Le confessioni di un Italiano) Ugo Foscolo ( ), Giacomo Leopardi ( )

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