Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 SECTION 2 & 3. Scientists classify marine life based on where they live and how they move. They are divided into 3 categories: PLANKTON."— Presentation transcript:
Scientists classify marine life based on where they live and how they move. They are divided into 3 categories: PLANKTON : tiny algae and animals that float in the water; carried by water currents. NEKTON : free-swimming animals Ex: squid, sharks, fish, turtles, sea otters, etc BENTHOS : organisms that live at the ocean floor Ex: crabs, starfish, urchins, lobsters, flounder
Phytoplankton and algae are the major PRODUCERS of the food web. They use sunlight to make their own food. Fish, crab, sea anenomes, corals, etc are the CONSUMERS. They eat the producers and other consumers. Some benthos organisms eat decaying or dead organisms; they are called DECOMPOSERS.
Organisms in this zone must be able to withstand changes in temperature, salinity, and exposure to air. Various intertidal zones include: 1) Estuaries 2) Mangrove forests 3) Salt marshes 4) Sandy shores/rocky shores 5) Tidal pools
Coral reefs are found in this zone in warm, tropical waters. Nutrients wash in this zone from land and sunlight reaches throughout this zone because it is shallow. The sunlight & nutrients encourage algae and other plant-like organisms to grow which serves as the base of the food chain.
ATOLL – a ring shaped reef surrounding a shallow lagoon.
Kelp forests grow in cold temperature waters on rocky ocean floors.
3 zones in the open ocean Surface zone – sunlight reaches throughout this zone; lots of phytoplankton and algae Transition zone – water here is darker and colder Deep zone – darker and even colder! Many organisms make their own light called BIOLUMINESCENCE
We depend on the ocean for both a) LIVING and b) NONLIVING resources. LIVING RESOURCES : Include fish – tuna, anchovies, mackerel, herring Also include shrimp, lobster, crab, squid, etc Most fish are caught in coastal waters in areas of upwelling. Sometimes fish can be overfished – catching more than can replaced by reproduction.
Other living resources are used for products instead of food. Algae is used in many household products such as shampoo and cosmetics.
The farming of freshwater or saltwater organisms. Environment is created for organisms to thrive; nutrient levels, temp, light and other factors are controlled. Salmon is being raised in Nebraska!
Includes water, fuel/oil, and minerals. Some minerals mined include: Magnesium Gravel Sand Diamonds Gold Manganese Iodine