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Bonds.

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Bonds

Bond Energy Bond Energy: the energy required to break a bond
What type of bond has the highest bond energy? (Single, Double, or Triple) C-C 348 kJ C=C 614 kJ CΞC 839 kJ

Bond Length Bond Length: the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms What type of bond is the longest? (Single, Double, or Triple) C-C 154 pm C=C 134 pm CΞC 120 pm

VSEPR

VSEPR VSEPR: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
The pairs of valence electrons in a molecule want to be as far apart from each other as possible. VSEPR allows us to predict the geometry or shape of the molecule.

VSEPR To determine the shape of the molecule you need to count the number of bonded atoms and the number of lone pairs on the center atom of the Lewis structure. A double or triple bond only counts as 1 bonded atom.

2 Bonded Atoms 0 Lone Pairs
Ex: CO2 This is a linear shape Linear molecules have a bond angle of 180° 180° O C O ●●

3 Bonded Atoms 0 Lone Pairs
Ex: CH2O This is a trigonal planar shape Trigonal planar has a bond angle of 120° H C O ●● 120°

N H O 2 Bonded Atoms 1 Lone Pair Ex: HNO This is a bent shape
This bent has a bond angle of 120° N H O ●● 120°

4 Bonded Atoms 0 Lone Pairs
Ex: CH4 (AKA methane) This is a tetrahedral shape Tetrahedral has a bond angle of 109.5° H H C H 109.5°

H N H H 3 Bonded Atoms 1 Lone Pair Ex: NH3 (AKA ammonia)
This shape is trigonal pyramidal Trigonal pyramidal has a bond angle of 109.5° H N H H ●● 109.5°

2 Bonded Atoms 2 Lone Pairs
Ex: H2O (AKA water) This shape is bent This bent has a bond angle of 109.5° O H H ●● 109.5°

Practice Draw the Lewis structure and predict the shape and bond angle for the following molecules: SiCl4 SI2 HCN BrPS

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