FMZ Our Aim Lines of development Grammatical Representation Power: Build a formalism/model able to give the possibility of reducing the unnecessary interpretations Grammar Use: Build a formalism (and an associated algorithm) able to represent partial analysis
FMZ Our Aim Lines of development Grammatical Representation Power: CFG (context free grammars) DCG Feature Structures Grammar Use: CYK Chart and Early Algorithm
FMZ Lesson learnt Lexicon (i.e. words) is a very important piece of the Language and of the language model Words carry meaning and govern the syntactic structure of sentences
FMZ What we observed Toy Examples:... La vecchia porta la sbarra...... Il vecchio porta la sbarra...... Flying planes can be dangerous...... Flying planes is dangerous...
FMZ Continuing the observation of the languages Some more toy examples:... Il ragazzo mangia la mela con il coltello...... Luomo guarda il monitor con gli occhi stralunati...... Le azioni della acme inc aumentano in tre settimane da 2 euro a 3 euro... How many interpretations are possible for these sentences?
FMZ Subcategorisation frames Necessary subcategorisation frames:... Il ragazzo mangia la mela con il coltello... ((NP) mangiare (NP) (PP(con)))... Luomo opera il paziente di appendicite... ((NP) operare (NP) (PP(di)))... Le azioni della acme inc aumentano in tre settimane da 2 euri a 3 euro... ((NP) aumentare (PP(da)) (PP(a)))
FMZ Observations Il ragazzo mangia la mela a mezzogiorno con il coltello How do we modify those(?): VP(mangiare) VerbX(mangiare) NP | VerbX (mangiare) NP PP(con) VerbX(mangiare) Verb(mangiare) | Modal Verb(mangiare)
FMZ Summing up We understood that subcategorisation can indicate preferred sentence readings We want to build lexicalised rules, that is, rules governed by lexical elements (words) We want to empower the grammar
FMZ Idea!!! Lexicalised rules may be partial tree! ((NP) aumentare (PP(da)) (PP(a))) aumentare V VP S NP PP IN daa NP
FMZ Defining better our aim We want a lexicalised grammar –each rule (partial tree) has to at least a lexical item We want a grammar equivalent to the a given grammar –weak equivalence: equivalence in the language recognised –strong equivalence: equivalence in generated trees with respect to input sentences... remember that the structure define the meaning
FMZ Operations in CFG in the derivation, no terminal symbols are substituted with rewriting rules headed by the same symbol may be understood as tree substitution no terminal symbols are substituted with trees headed by the same symbol is it sufficient to obtain the strong equivalence?
FMZ Investigating strong equivalence Given the grammar and the sequence aaaa, one of the interpretations is:
FMZ Lets build the lexicalised grammar Given the tree collection the interpretation cannot be obtained!
FMZ Another example Given the grammar it can be lexicalised as follows: strange rule!!!
FMZ Another example The same grammar may be lexicalised also however, what about this
FMZ What is a grammar now? It is a collection of: initial trees, represent the lexicon, e.g., auxiliary trees, represent grammatical rules, e.g.,
FMZ Do you remember? copy-language structures: Pino, Gino e Rino sono rispettivamente fratello, zio e babbo di Nino may be read as: a 1 a 2 a 3 b 1 b 2 b 3 Exercise: Find a model in TAG for this problem
FMZ What we have done? we have worked on the representation power of the grammar we introduced: –lexicalised rules –the adjoining operation where do we pay? –on the parsing algorithm?
FMZ Question Have we resolved the problem of selecting between different readings (sentence interpretations)?