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Humanitarian Situation Analysis Sheets Montes de María 2004 - 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Humanitarian Situation Analysis Sheets Montes de María 2004 - 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Humanitarian Situation Analysis Sheets Montes de María 2004 - 2007

2 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Bruno Moro Resident Humanitarian Coordinator Raul Rosende Head of Office Gianni Morelli Senior Field Coordinator Helena Mazarro North – West Area Coordinator Texts, systematization and Data Analysis Diana Roa Castro Information and Analysis Officer Cartography Jeffrey Villaveces Cartography Officer This document and the information contained therein may be reproduced totally or partially by any means, whether mechanical, electronic, magnetic, photocopy or another, as long as the source is mentioned. Bogota, Colombia, April 2008 © Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations - OCHA

3 Armed Confrontations January 2004- December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia | Military Armed Forces SYNOPSIS 2004 - 2007 Number of armed confrontations111 Number of affected municipalities14 Average of armed confrontations per affected municipality7,9 average of armed confrontations per month during the period2,3

4 Armed Confrontations January 2004- December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia | Military Armed Forces Fourteen of the 16 municipalities that make up the region of Montes de Maria, have been affected by the occurrence of 111 armed confrontations in its territory. According to the Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law of the Vice Presidency of Colombia, the region accounts for 3,7% of total war events developed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007. The municipalities of Ovejas and Carmen de Bolívar, side to side of the border between the departments of Sucre and Bolivar, concentrated 45,5% of the armed contacts in the region. Both municipalities are the most affected due to this events.

5 Armed Confrontations January 2004- December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia | Military Armed Forces The armed forces have participated in 83 armed confrontations. The Army has taken part in 29 events, while the Navy, through the First Infantry Brigade, has faced illegal armed groups in 82 opportunities. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FARC, is the most active illegal armed group in the region, with active participation in at least 90 events. FARC is followed by the New Armed Groups that have emerged in the region, which have participated in no less than 9 combats. The National Liberation Army - ELN, clashed with the Navy in 6 opportunities and the People's Revolutionary Army - ERP participated in 6 armed confrontations.

6 Armed Confrontations January 2004- December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia | Military Armed Forces The region of Montes de Maria presents an stable trend with regard to the development of military actions. However, it is important to mention that there has been an increase of 10 armed attacks between 2006 and 2007. Thirty-six percent of the armed confrontations developed during the period between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007 took place within the last year.

7 SYNOPSIS 2004 - 2007 Number of new victims135 Number of affected municipalities7 Average of new victims per affected municipality19,3 Average of new victims per month during the period2,8 LANDMINES AND UXO January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Integral Mine Action Presidential Program

8 LANDMINES AND UXO January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Integral Mine Action Presidential Program Seven of the 16 municipalities of Montes de Maria region have been affected by the occurrence of no less than 135 accidents generated by the presence of landmines and/or unexploded ordnance – UXO. According to the Integral Mine Action Presidential Program, the Montes de María region concentrates 3,4% of the total amount of accidents occurred between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007. The municipality of Carmen de Bolívar is the most affected one, with 82 recorded accidents.

9 LANDMINES AND UXO January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Integral Mine Action Presidential Program Twenty-nine of the 135 victims of the Montes de Maria were civilians, all of them men. Carmen de Bolívar is the municipality with a highest rate of civilian victims, with 16 civilians injured between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007. Seven out of the 29 civilian victims were boys between 4 and 15 years old. Children have reported that their accidents took place while they were helping their families in agricultural activities. All of childrens accidents occurred in the municipalities of El Carmen de Bolívar and Ovejas.

10 LANDMINES AND UXO January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Integral Mine Action Presidential Program 2005 was the year with the highest level of accidents, recording an increment of 83% between this year and 2004. However, although the global rate of accidents has decreased in 2006 and 2007, the amount of civilian victims remains the in the same level (between 6 and 9 civilian victims per year).

11 Homicidies January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia SYNOPSIS 2004 - 2007 Number of homicides429 Number of affected municipalities15 Average of homicides per affected municipalities28,6 Average of homicides per month during the period8,9

12 Homicidies January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia The Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law from the Vicepresidency of Colombia recorded 429 homicides between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007. Homicides have taken place in 15 of the 16 municipalities of the region, being San Onofre, Sincelejo and Ovejas the most affected ones. The recent discovery of common graves in the municipality of San Onofre is considered to be the main reason for the high level of homicides.

13 Homicidies January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia At least 48 women were killed between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. According to the source, more than 50% of the female victims were members of victims movements, and 7 were tortured before being killed. No less than 13 children between 2 and 17 years – old were killed in the municipalities of El Carmen de Bolívar, Ovejas, Zambrano and Sincelejo. Given the high volume of victims found in common graves during the second semester of 2005, the identity and age of 27% of them remains unknown.

14 Homicidies January 2004 - December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Human Rights and IHL Observatory, of the Vicepresidency of Colombia The discovery of 14 common graves in the municipality of San Onofre during the second semester of 2005 makes this the most critical period. However, the month of February 2007 is the most affected one, considering all assassinations recorded for this period. The Observatory has registered the homicide of 30 former members of the demobilized Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia. Together with the department of Cordoba, the Montes de María region is the area were more ex-combatants were killed during the reporting period.

15 Communities at Risk January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Early Warning System – People Ombudspersons Office SYNOPSIS 2004 - 2007 Number of Warnings32 Number of affected municipalities10 Average of warnings per affected municipalities3,2

16 Communities at Risk January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Early Warning System – People Ombudspersons Office According to the Early Warning System form the People Ombudspersons Office, communities of 10 municipalities of the Montes de María Region experienced risks to the survival and effective exercise of rights of civilian population. The Early Warning System alerted risks in 32 opportunities, being the communities of Zambrano, Córdoba, Carmen de Bolívar and Ovejas de most affected ones. Keeping with the global trend, FARC is the armed group that presumably generates more risks to civilians. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that the reconfiguration of new armed groups has increased the levels of risk to special communities, such as the victims' movements, the human rights defenders, and women. The Revolutionary Peoples Army – ERP, a guerrilla that was presumably demobilized during the second quarter of 2007, generated risk to peasants and cattle raisers of the municipalities of El Carmen de Bolívar, Zambrano and Ovejas.

17 Communities at Risk January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Early Warning System – People Ombudspersons Office The Early Warning System identified 5 variables that contribute to structure of risk scenarios. The stigmatization of civilians as collaborators or even members of illegal armed groups is perceived as the most dangerous conduct, generating forced displacement, homicides, threats and forced disappearance The Early Warning System has recurrently alerted of the risk generated by new armed groups in their purpose of concealing or even destroying evidence of crimes against humanity. In this sense, the homicide of members of victims movements and human rights defenders, the forced disappearance of community leaders and leaders of displaced population, evidence the concretion of de described risk scenarios. The development of armed confrontations between armed groups in populated areas is also a matter of concern. Finally, the will to control social and authority spaces has generated extortions, threats, homicides and displacement of public servants, community leaders and candidates to public positions. Methodological note: To measure the weight of each variable in the configuration of risk scenarios, we identified the variables from each of the reports / risk notes and proceeded to count the number of times they appear. Later the total number of times each variable was mentioned was divided by the general total to assign weight to each of the variables in relation to each other.

18 Communities at Risk January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Early Warning System – People Ombudspersons Office Members of victims organizations and leaders of displaced population have been identified as the most at risk groups in the Montes de María region. Special mention needs to be made about demobilized population, which has also been identified as a group with high levels of risk. The alerts in this sense are highlighted with the evidence of 30 homicides in the region. Methodological note: For the calculation of risk levels related to the population, events mentioned in each of the reports / risk notes and the number of times they were mentioned were considered, along with the municipalities in which there were risk reports for specific populations. The x-axis represents the number of municipalities and the size and colour of the circle, the number of times risk was mentioned.

19 Forced Displacement January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Presidential Agency for Social Action and International Cooperation

20 Forced Displacement January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Presidential Agency for Social Action and International Cooperation The Presidential Agency for Social Action and International Cooperation – Acción Social, has recorded the displacement of 47803 persons between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007. All 16 municipalities of Montes de María are considered to have the double condition of expellers and receptors of displaced population. El Carmen de Bolivar is the most affected municipality regarding expulsion of population. Keeping with the national trend, 42% of the victims of displacement were women, 19% were children under 18 years – old and 39% were men. According to Accion Social, among the most common reasons cited by displaced persons for their migration are the recurrence and intensity of armed confrontations in populated areas, forced recruitment by illegal armed actors, individual and collective threats and homicides of community leaders.

21 Forced Displacement January 2004 – December 2007 OCHA | UN | Colombia Source: Presidential Agency for Social Action and International Cooperation While there was an evident low level of forced displacements during 2004 and 2005, there is an increase of more than 1200% between 2005 and 2006. The trend remains equal for the first months of 2006 and, while there is a decrease of 45% between 2006 and 2007, the levels of forced displacement between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2007 are the highest in the past 10 years.


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