Presentation on theme: "Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale"— Presentation transcript:
1 Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale Introduction to the Ariane launchers family Ing. Luca del Monte ESA-HQ, ParisCorso di Propulsione AerospazialeUniversita’di Roma “La Sapienza”A.A
2 A launcher is defined by: Its payload mass performance in a specified orbitThe available volume to hoist the payloadThe environmental conditions supported by the payload:thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical
3 The Payload Orbits are classified by: Their plane angle compared to the Equatorial plane.Their altitude.
6 Low Earth Orbit Altitude between 100Km and 500Km Polar or with dedicated inclination.Used for Science, Observation, Telecom, Navigation (Constellations).
7 Sun Synchronous Orbits (S.S.O.) Polar OrbitAltitude such that the satellite fly over a given part of the earth at the same local hour.Mainly 800 Km
8 Geo Stationary Transfer Orbit Equatorial OrbitPerigee: around 250 KmApogee: KmCircularisation at Km made by the satellite itself, or the launcher, depending on its architecture and the specific impulse of its last stage. Performance optimisation for the satellite.Telecom, TV, Meteorology, etc.
9 Ariane 5 : Performance growth potential is one of the keys to success GTO PERFORMANCEAriane 5 ECA12 tAriane 5 ECB11 tAriane 5 ES10 tAriane 5G9 t8 t7 t6 t5 t4 t199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010
10 Advantages of an Equatorial Launching Base Trajectories to reach the final Orbit are simplified.The performance Gain is significantKourou is an example.
11 Launcher Design (1) From one to four stages, usually three Expendables and RecoverableStaging optimisation.
16 Ariane 1 Objectives Free Access to Space. European Programme with French Space Agency as Prime Contractor.Already qualified technologies.Comparable performance with American launchers.
17 Ariane 1 Design Choices (1) Technology proven structures:metallic tanks already ground qualified.Classical aeronautical technologies for inter stages and fairing.Two main engines:Viking for the storable propellant stage,HM7 for the cryogenic stage, already ground tested.
19 Viking V Design coming from the French “Diamant” launcher. 621kN Thrust on groundSingle shaft turbo pumpWater cooled
20 HM7 Predevelopment in the 60’s in France 61.8kN Thrust 440.6s Specific impulseTurbo pump with gear box
21 Ariane 1 Upper composite VEB with European electronic box (Ferranti inertial platform)Sylda in carbon fiber for double launchesStandard adaptors
22 Ariane 1 Fairing Classical Aeronautical structure. Parallel jettisoningCarbon Fibre sandwich for the rear part.
23 Ariane 3 ObjectivesTo launch 2 standard telecom satellites (average mass 1350kg) in GTOTo reduce the recurring price
24 Ariane 3 Design Choices To use strap on solid boosters To increase the reliability of Viking propulsion by using a propellant less sensitive to High Frequency phenomenaTo increase slightly the HM7 performance by increasing the chamber pressure.
25 A3 Strap On Boosters 7.3 tons solid propellant Immerged and canted nozzleSubsonic jettisoningMechanical ejection springs
26 A3 H10 Propellant mass increase from 8 to 10 tons Hm7 engine chamber pressure increase from 30 to 35 barsHm7 Thrust increase to 64.8 tonsWeight savings
27 A3 FairingDouble canted nose cone to allow a standard volume for two 1350kg satellites
28 Ariane 4 Objectives To offer a payload volume of 3.6m in diameter. To launch 2 satellites of 1800kgTo be commercially competitive, using double launches.
29 Ariane 4 Design Choices Increase the solid booster performance. Design liquid propellant boosters using the Viking engine.Use the already qualified carbon fibre technology for upper part structures.
30 A4 L220 Liquid propellant mass increase from 140 to 220 tons Adaptation of the thrust frame to fit with ELA2 launch padAdaptation of the structures for booster fittings.Integration of a new water tank
31 A4 Liquid Propellant Booster 2 or 4 boosters.Liquid propellant UDMH-N2O4 (39tons each)Fixed canted engine VikingSupersonic jettisonWater need fed by L220
32 A4 Solid Propellant Booster 2 or 4 boostersPropellant mass increased from 7.3 to 9.5 tonsLength adaptation to fit with the L220 attachmentsBurning time decreased from 10.3 to 7.3 mm/sSubsonic jettison
33 A4 H10 Replacement of the metallic rear skirt by a carbon fibre one Adaptation of the structures to the increased mechanical loads due to the new upper structure.
34 A4 VEBRedesign of the structure due the fairing diameter increase from 3.2 to 4mUpdating of the electronic equipment, particularly the computer and inertial platform
35 A4 Fairing and Speltra Increased diameter to 4m. Two lengths configurations.Carbon fibre technologyParallel jettisoning with clean pyro-cutting
36 Ariane 5 Objectives To launch the Hermes Vehicle To launch heavy commercial satellitesTo launch constellation satellites in batchesTo low down the launching services price
37 Ariane 5 Design Choices Man rated for Hermes. Less numerous, but more powerful and reliable EnginesRe ignitable upper stageDouble launch20% less expensive than Ariane 4
38 A5 Solid Propellant Stage 230 solid propellant engine, casted in a dedicated plant in near the launch pad.Flexible joint movable nozzle.Stage recovery for expertise.
39 A5 Cryotechnic stage 5.4 m diameter. 158 ton of propellant LOX/LH2. 1145kN ThrustSub orbital stage.The solid propellant stages thrust is transmitted to the upper composite via the EPC front skirt.
40 A5 Vulcain Engine Thrust: 1145kN. Mixture ratio: 5.35. Mass: 1740kg. Gas generator fed with independent flowSpecific Impulse:431s.
41 A5 Vehicle Equipment Bay Hoist the Storable propellant stage.Includes an active attitude control system using small Hydrazine engines (400N)Redundant electrical equipments.Digital Bus for the whole launcher.
42 A5 storable propellant stage Pressure fed Aestus EngineStorable propellantTwo tanks with a flow combiner for each propellantRe ignitable
43 A5 Fairing Adaptable length for single or double launch Acoustic internal protection for Satellite comfort!Parallel jettison using gas proof pyro devices.