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Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale

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Presentation on theme: "Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale"— Presentation transcript:

1 Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale
Introduction to the Ariane launchers family Ing. Luca del Monte ESA-HQ, Paris Corso di Propulsione Aerospaziale Universita’di Roma “La Sapienza” A.A

2 A launcher is defined by:
Its payload mass performance in a specified orbit The available volume to hoist the payload The environmental conditions supported by the payload:thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical

3 The Payload Orbits are classified by:
Their plane angle compared to the Equatorial plane. Their altitude.

4 Orbit Altitudes

5 Orbit Inclination

6 Low Earth Orbit Altitude between 100Km and 500Km
Polar or with dedicated inclination. Used for Science, Observation, Telecom, Navigation (Constellations).

7 Sun Synchronous Orbits (S.S.O.)
Polar Orbit Altitude such that the satellite fly over a given part of the earth at the same local hour. Mainly 800 Km

8 Geo Stationary Transfer Orbit
Equatorial Orbit Perigee: around 250 Km Apogee: Km Circularisation at Km made by the satellite itself, or the launcher, depending on its architecture and the specific impulse of its last stage. Performance optimisation for the satellite. Telecom, TV, Meteorology, etc.

9 Ariane 5 : Performance growth potential is one of the keys to success
GTO PERFORMANCE Ariane 5 ECA 12 t Ariane 5 ECB 11 t Ariane 5 ES 10 t Ariane 5G 9 t 8 t 7 t 6 t 5 t 4 t 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

10 Advantages of an Equatorial Launching Base
Trajectories to reach the final Orbit are simplified. The performance Gain is significant Kourou is an example.

11 Launcher Design (1) From one to four stages, usually three
Expendables and Recoverable Staging optimisation.

12 Stage Propulsion Solid propulsion
Liquid propulsion ( storable propellant, Cryogenic propellant)

13 Launcher Design Disciplines
Aerodynamics Structures Guidance and Control Propulsion

14 208 satellites + 39 auxiliary payloads
From Ariane 1 to Ariane 5: 162 launches First flight: 24/12/79 First flight: 31/05/86 First flight: 04/08/84 First flight: 15/06/88 First flight: 04/06/96 11 Ariane 1 6 Ariane 2 Ariane 3 118 Ariane 4 15 Ariane 5 208 satellites + 39 auxiliary payloads successfully injected into orbit


16 Ariane 1 Objectives Free Access to Space.
European Programme with French Space Agency as Prime Contractor. Already qualified technologies. Comparable performance with American launchers.

17 Ariane 1 Design Choices (1)
Technology proven structures: metallic tanks already ground qualified. Classical aeronautical technologies for inter stages and fairing. Two main engines: Viking for the storable propellant stage, HM7 for the cryogenic stage, already ground tested.

18 Ariane 1, L140 140 tons propellant UDMH-N2O4 19m high, 3.8m broad
2485kN Thrust 247.4s Specific Impulse ΔV=1800m/s

19 Viking V Design coming from the French “Diamant” launcher.
621kN Thrust on ground Single shaft turbo pump Water cooled

20 HM7 Predevelopment in the 60’s in France 61.8kN Thrust
440.6s Specific impulse Turbo pump with gear box

21 Ariane 1 Upper composite
VEB with European electronic box (Ferranti inertial platform) Sylda in carbon fiber for double launches Standard adaptors

22 Ariane 1 Fairing Classical Aeronautical structure.
Parallel jettisoning Carbon Fibre sandwich for the rear part.

23 Ariane 3 Objectives To launch 2 standard telecom satellites (average mass 1350kg) in GTO To reduce the recurring price

24 Ariane 3 Design Choices To use strap on solid boosters
To increase the reliability of Viking propulsion by using a propellant less sensitive to High Frequency phenomena To increase slightly the HM7 performance by increasing the chamber pressure.

25 A3 Strap On Boosters 7.3 tons solid propellant
Immerged and canted nozzle Subsonic jettisoning Mechanical ejection springs

26 A3 H10 Propellant mass increase from 8 to 10 tons
Hm7 engine chamber pressure increase from 30 to 35 bars Hm7 Thrust increase to 64.8 tons Weight savings

27 A3 Fairing Double canted nose cone to allow a standard volume for two 1350kg satellites

28 Ariane 4 Objectives To offer a payload volume of 3.6m in diameter.
To launch 2 satellites of 1800kg To be commercially competitive, using double launches.

29 Ariane 4 Design Choices Increase the solid booster performance.
Design liquid propellant boosters using the Viking engine. Use the already qualified carbon fibre technology for upper part structures.

30 A4 L220 Liquid propellant mass increase from 140 to 220 tons
Adaptation of the thrust frame to fit with ELA2 launch pad Adaptation of the structures for booster fittings. Integration of a new water tank

31 A4 Liquid Propellant Booster
2 or 4 boosters. Liquid propellant UDMH-N2O4 (39tons each) Fixed canted engine Viking Supersonic jettison Water need fed by L220

32 A4 Solid Propellant Booster
2 or 4 boosters Propellant mass increased from 7.3 to 9.5 tons Length adaptation to fit with the L220 attachments Burning time decreased from 10.3 to 7.3 mm/s Subsonic jettison

33 A4 H10 Replacement of the metallic rear skirt by a carbon fibre one
Adaptation of the structures to the increased mechanical loads due to the new upper structure.

34 A4 VEB Redesign of the structure due the fairing diameter increase from 3.2 to 4m Updating of the electronic equipment, particularly the computer and inertial platform

35 A4 Fairing and Speltra Increased diameter to 4m.
Two lengths configurations. Carbon fibre technology Parallel jettisoning with clean pyro-cutting

36 Ariane 5 Objectives To launch the Hermes Vehicle
To launch heavy commercial satellites To launch constellation satellites in batches To low down the launching services price

37 Ariane 5 Design Choices Man rated for Hermes.
Less numerous, but more powerful and reliable Engines Re ignitable upper stage Double launch 20% less expensive than Ariane 4

38 A5 Solid Propellant Stage
230 solid propellant engine, casted in a dedicated plant in near the launch pad. Flexible joint movable nozzle. Stage recovery for expertise.

39 A5 Cryotechnic stage 5.4 m diameter. 158 ton of propellant LOX/LH2.
1145kN Thrust Sub orbital stage. The solid propellant stages thrust is transmitted to the upper composite via the EPC front skirt.

40 A5 Vulcain Engine Thrust: 1145kN. Mixture ratio: 5.35. Mass: 1740kg.
Gas generator fed with independent flow Specific Impulse:431s.

41 A5 Vehicle Equipment Bay
Hoist the Storable propellant stage. Includes an active attitude control system using small Hydrazine engines (400N) Redundant electrical equipments. Digital Bus for the whole launcher.

42 A5 storable propellant stage
Pressure fed Aestus Engine Storable propellant Two tanks with a flow combiner for each propellant Re ignitable

43 A5 Fairing Adaptable length for single or double launch
Acoustic internal protection for Satellite comfort! Parallel jettison using gas proof pyro devices.

44 A5 payload volume

45 A5 Speltra Adaptable length Used for launching two heavy satellites
Carbon fibre technology

46 ARIANE 1 – 5 LAUNCHES (1 April 2004)
Failures Period Success rate Ariane 1 11 (2) 1979/1986 0.82 Ariane 2-3 17 1984/1989 0.88 Ariane 4 116 (3) 1988/2002 0.97 Ariane 5G 1996/2004 Ariane 5 ECA 1 (1) 2002 N.A.

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