3 CONTENTS OF THE ECCSS PRESENTATION I: BACKGROUND OF THE ECCSSII: PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER RESPONSES2.1 ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD DISASTER2.2 DEFINITIONS OF THE DISASTER2.3 KEY TERMS RELATED TO DISASTERSIII: CLASSIFICATIONS OF DISASTERSIV: CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTERSV: EMERGENCY (DISASTERS) MANAGEMENT5.1 MITIGATION AND PREVENTION5.2 PREPAREDNESS5.3 RESPONSE AND RELIEF5.4 RECOVERY , REHIABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTIONVI: CONSEQUENCES OF THE DISASTERSVII: DEVELOPMENT AND DISASTERSVIII: THE ROLE OF CHURCH IN DISASTERS RESPONSEIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4 I: Background of the ECCSS It was recognized by North West Conference to be a mission field in It was recognized by CWM in 1999 and held its first Annual Meeting in Akobo South Sudan. Has 363 Congregations and 19 preaching places It has total figure of 24,896 believers. It has 57 ordained ministers of the Word and Sacraments and more than 1200 volunteer preachers and evangelists. It started working in partnership with CWR in Relief and development since 1997 until the moment.
5 The ECCSS Areas of Operation The ECCSS covers four states (Upper Nile,Jonglie, Unity and central Equatoria State) in South Sudan and western Gambella Regional State of Ethiopia Fugnido Refugee Camp.The ECCSS has established churches in the refugee camps in Kenya.
6 ECCSS VISIONTo reach all People of South Sudan and beyond with the Gospel of salvation and be able to meet their Spiritual, Social and Physical needs in their respective places.ECCSS MISSIONTo contribute to building spiritually and physically stable Healthy and capacitated society in its operational areas.
7 II: PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER RESPONSES 2.1 ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD DISASTERSThe word disaster comes from Greek pejorative prefix , (dus) “ bad” + (aster), “ star”.The root of the word disaster (“bad star” in Greek) comes from an astrological theme in which the ancients people used to refer to the destruction of a star as a disaster
8 2.2 DEFINITIONS OF THE DISASTER A disaster is a serious disruption of thefunctioning of a community or a societyinvolving widespread of humans, materials,economic or environmental losses andimpacts, which exceed the ability of theaffected community or society to cope using its own resources.
9 Risk = Hazard + Vulnerability–Capacity A disasters are often described as a result of the combinationof the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of vulnerabilitythat are present; and insufficient capacity or measures toreduce or cope with the potential negative consequences.Risk or Disasters are simplified into the following equation.Risk = Hazard + Vulnerability–Capacity
10 Relationship of vulnerability, hazard and disaster
11 2.3 Key Terms related to Disasters Risk- Is the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequence. Hazard- is a dangerous phenomena, substance, human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage. Vulnerability- The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.
12 III: CLASSIFICATIONS OF DISASTERS The Disasters are routinely divided into Natural and Man- made disasters. 3.1 Natural Disasters: are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events. A. Natural disasters with acute ( sudden) onsets include: earthquake, flood, hurricane, cyclone or typhoon, tornado, fire, tsunami or storm surge, avalanche, volcanic eruption, extreme cold or blizzard, and heat wave. B. Natural disasters with slow or gradual onset include: drought, famine, desertification, deforestation, and pest infestation.
13 3.1 Natural Disaster Categories, Types and Subtypes A) Geophysical (Land Movement) Disasters: Earthquakes , Landslides and Mudflows, Volcanic Eruptions, etc. B) Hydrological ( Water) Disasters: Floods, Tsunamis, etc. C) Metrological ( Weather) Disasters: Tropical Cyclone, Hurricane, Tornado, Drought and Wild Fire D) Biological ( Epidemic) Disasters: Viral Infectious Diseases, Bacterial Infectious diseases, Fungal Infectious diseases, Insect Infestation etc.
14 2: Man-Made DisastersThese disasters are caused by human action, negligence, error or involving the failure of a system. Human-made disasters are in turn categorized as Technological and Sociological.A) Technological disasters are the results of the failure of technology such as: Structural Collapse, Power Outage, Engineering failures, Transport disasters and Environmental Disasters.B) Sociological disasters have a strong human motive such as: Arson, Civil disorder/riots, Terrorism, criminal acts, stampedes and war/Conflict
15 Iv: CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTERS The magnitude of the each disaster measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a given developing Country increases with the increased marginalization of the population. The following are the fundamental causes of the disasters:A) Poverty: All factors could be lessened if the affected population were not also limited by povertyPoverty explains why people in urban areas are forced to in hills that are prone to landslides or why people settle near volcano or rivers that invariably flood their banks.Poverty explains why drought claims poor peasant farmers as victims and rarely the wealthy.Poverty explains why many people are forced to move from their homes to other parts of their countries or even across border to survive.
16 C) Rapid Urbanization: B) Population Growth:Increasing number of the people will be competing for a limited amount of resources ( such as employment opportunities and land) which can lead to conflict.C) Rapid Urbanization:The massive number of urban poor increases the fewer options for availability of safe and desirable to build their houses. That causes competition over the scare resources which can lead into human-made disasters. Eg. Landslides or flooding disasters are closely linked to rapid and unchecked urbanization.
17 E) Lack of Awareness and Information: D) Environmental Degradation: Many disasters are either caused or exacerbated by environmental degradation.Deforestation leads to the rapid rain runoff, which contribute to the flooding.Drought condition may be caused by poor crops patterns, over- grazing, the stripping of top soil, poor conservation and techniques, depletion of both the surface and subsurface water supply etc.E) Lack of Awareness and Information:Disasters can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how to get out of harm’s way or to take protective measures.Lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safe structure on safe locations.
18 disasters after 9/11 in USA. G) War and Civil Strife:Wars and Civil Strife are regarded as hazards which are extreme events that produce disasters resulted into the displacement of the people.War and Civil Strife include competition for scarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance and ideological differences.H) Terrorism: It became one of the leading man-madedisasters after 9/11 in USA.
19 A. 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami 4.1 SOME OF THE TRAGIC IMAGES OF THE WORST DISASTERS IN THE WORLD RECORDSA Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami
20 Landslide occurred on March 1-2010 in Bududa district ,Eastern Uganda
21 A dying Child abandoned by parentS during Sudan civil war in 1990s
22 South Sudan acute malnourish children under severe condition ( Source WPF 2014)
23 A woman and her kid bunt in the house in Juba during South Sudan conflict December 2013 R.I.P
25 South Sudan IDPs in the mid of flood disaster in Juba Sept-16-2014
26 Medical staff carry the body killed by Ebola virus (hemorrhagic) fever) in Guekedou, Guinea 2014
27 V: EMERGENCY (DISASTERS) MANAGEMENT There are Four Phases of Emergency ManagementThe Aim of the Emergency Management are:Reduce (avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards;Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary;Achieve rapid and durable recovery.
28 The diagram below illustrates the Four Phases of Emergency Management
29 5.1 Mitigation and Prevention Phase This phase includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the likelihood of occurrence, or reduce the damaging effects of unavoidable hazards.Mitigation activities should be considered long before an emergency.The goal of mitigation is to create economically secure, socially stable, better built, and more environmentally sound communities that are out of harm’s ways.Providing regulations regarding evacuation,sanctions against those who refuse to obey the regulations.
30 Community awareness campaigns to increase knowledge of how to deal with disaster situations and its potential risk to the public.Any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or reduce the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies.Mitigation activities take place before and after emergencies.
31 5:2 Preparedness PhaseThis phase includes developing plans for what to do, where to go, or who to call for help before an event occurs; actions that will improve your chances of successfully dealing with an emergency. Typical preparedness measures include:Plans or preparations made to save lives and to help response and rescue operations.Recruiting personnel for the emergency services and for community volunteer groups, emergency planning, and development of mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding.
32 A): Some of the means for disaster Preparedness situations Escape routesUtility shut-off and safetyInsurance and vital recordsLearn First AidPlan a headKeep copies of Important documentsListen on to News and Weather ReportsLearn Disaster Survival Skills
33 5:3 Response and Relief Phase Response phase may commence with search, rescue and provide medical care to the people affected.This may involve evacuation of threatened communities, emergency assistance during the disaster, and actions taken in the immediate aftermath during the time when the community is rather disorganized and basic services and infrastructure are not fully functioning.Actions taken to save lives and prevent further property damage in an emergency situation. Response is putting your preparedness plans into action.
34 Evacuation of threatened populations and opening of shelters and provision of mass care. Fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population.Coordination of the disaster assistance is often crucial to avoid replication of the assistance and responsibilities.Response activities take place during an emergency.
35 5: 4 Recovery ( Rehabilitation and Reconstruction) A) The Four Elements of recovery Are: 1. Community recovery (including psychological recovery); 2. Infrastructure recovery (services and lifelines); 3. Economy recovery (including financial and political considerations, and business continuity); 4. Environment recovery.
36 B) Principles of the disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Three phases describe as to what happens to post- impact in the affected community:1. Emergency phase: activities should focus on saving lives through search and rescue, first aid emergency medical assistance and over all disaster assessment.2.Transition or recovery phase: during this phase, people return to work, repair damaged buildings and infrastructure, and initiate other actions that allow the community to return to their normal as soon as possible.3. Reconstruction phase: is characterized by physical reordering of communications, utilities, roads and general environment. Residents repair or rebuild their housing and agricultural activities resume.
37 VI: Consequences of the Disasters Disasters can cause huge loss of lives and economic losses .Disasters cause population displacement and force people to seek the refugee in the neighboring Countries and beyond.Disasters cause food shortage and bring acute malnutrition.Disasters cause common mental health problems.Disasters cause communicable diseases.Disasters bring chaos and social disorders to the affected community.Disasters devastate Environments and set back the Development
38 VII: Development and Disasters 1. Disasters set back development programming, destroying yearsof development initiatives. Disasters can seriously disruptdevelopment initiatives in several ways, including:Loss of resourcesInterruption of programsImpact on investmentImpact on the non-formal sectorPolitical destabilization
39 2) Development programs can increase a particular area's susceptibility to disasters. Eg, A major increase in livestock development leads to overgrazing, which contributes to desertification and increased vulnerability to famine.3) Rebuilding after a disaster provides significant opportunities to initiate development programs.4) Development programs can be designed to decrease susceptibility to disasters and their negative consequences. Eg, Housing projects constructed under building codes designed to withstand high winds result in less destruction during the next tropical storm.
40 VIII: The Role of CHURCH in Disasters Response The Church considers its’ role in disaster response as one of the primary responsibility to save lives and support the existing of the affected community.In the mid and aftermath of Disasters, the Church works in collaboration with other NGOs and Faith base Organizations to combat various disasters by sharing their expertise and resources.
41 The main beneficiaries of the disasters relief are vulnerable people like disables, elderly, wounded and sick, newborn and pregnancy mothers, malnourish children, those who remain with physical trauma of the disasters, those who loss their love ones etc.It participates in all four Phases of disasters Management, but it has more emphasis on Response and Relief Phase though the rests of the phases remain essential and vital to be supported.
42 Conducts Early assessment in the mid and aftermath of the disasters in order to know the real victims and those who are eligible for the relief.During disasters assessment, the it involves the local authority and other stakeholders in the process.
43 THE CHURCH RELIEF PRGRAMS in South Sudan AND GAMBELLA WESTERN, ETHIOPIA A) South Sudanese Returnees receiving relief items from ECCSS in Malakal, South Sudan
44 B) IDPs displaced by Fangak Incident at the distribution Center of Food Ration in Tonga town Upper Nile State, South Sudan March 2011
45 C) South Sudan Refugees’ Needs Assessment photo by ECCSS- Leaders March 2014
46 D): South Sudanese and ECCSS leaders waiting for the relief distribution in Kotkeah village February 2014
47 E): South Sudanese IDPs receiving the food items purchased with CWR-Relief July Play the CWR-Relief video after these pictures
48 IX: Conclusion and Recommendations The Disasters Mitigation, Prevention and Preparedness should be given a priority so as to avoid the occurrence or the huge damage that may be caused by the disasters.All Governmental, Humanitarian and Faith Base Organizations should work together and lay down the positive mechanisms which prevent the occurrence disasters.The Environmental protection and wise use of the resources shall be prioritized and observed by care.All the stakeholders in the Community shall put their efforts the activities which promote Peace and harmony in the community and avoid any thing that can bring conflict to the community and Country at large.
49 In the event of disasters, both Governmental and Humanitarian Organizations should focus on any thing that save life like search, rescue mission and relief works.The Relief Agencies which are combating the disasters should coordinate their efforts to help the victims together. Such Coordination will avoid the replication of assistances and responsibilities.The Relief works shall be provided base on the victims’ needs at their existing situations.
50 The Community who lives in disasters’ prone zones shall be aware of the danger of such hazardous environment/location.The Church and other Humanitarian Organizations shall serve as watchdogs to protect the vulnerable people like women, children and those who are living with disabilities in and after the disasters.According to the Gospels of Matthew 28:19-20 “Christ sent all of us to serve as Ambassadors who shall be taking His Glory to all nations and serve their whole needs.”Let us continue our efforts to serve the needy, the poor and marginalize groups and take the Glory of Christ to them.”
51 THANKS YOU VERY MUCH AND GOD BLESS YOU ALL! MAY GOD BLESS THE PARTICIPANTS OF THIS SPECIAL GATHERINGMAY GOD BLESS THE CWR COMMISION AND THOSE WHO HELPED TO MAKE THIS GATHERING HAPPENEDTHANKS YOU VERY MUCH AND GOD BLESS YOU ALL!Presented by ECCSS-Leadership09-November-2014Bamenda, Cameroon