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Connecticut Fire Academy Hazardous Materials Awareness N.F.P.A. 472 – 2013 Chapter 4 January 01, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Connecticut Fire Academy Hazardous Materials Awareness N.F.P.A. 472 – 2013 Chapter 4 January 01, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Connecticut Fire Academy Hazardous Materials Awareness N.F.P.A. 472 – 2013 Chapter 4 January 01, 2013

2 Connecticut Fire Academy Objective After Completing this Course, the Student will Demonstrate a Knowledge of Hazardous Materials Practices and Procedures in Accordance with N.F.P.A. 472-2008 Awareness Level with 70% Accuracy on a Written Exam Hazardous Materials Awareness N.F.P.A. 472 – 2013 Chapter 4

3 Connecticut Fire Academy  Definition (OSHA)  First Responder Awareness Level  First responders at the awareness level are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. They would take no further action beyond notifying the authorities of the release. 29CFR1910.120(q)(6)(i)

4 Connecticut Fire Academy  Definition (NFPA) 472-2008  Awareness Level Personnel  Persons who in the course of their normal duties, could encounter an emergency involving Hazardous Materials / Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and who are expected to recognize the presence of the Hazardous Materials / WMD, protect themselves, call for trained personnel, and secure the area. NFPA 3.3.4

5 Connecticut Fire Academy  Introduction  Meet Requirements of 472-2008  Chapter 4  Additional Requirements From:  OSHA  EPA  DOT  State, Local etc. NFPA 4.1.1.1 / 4.1.1.2 / 4.1.1.3

6 Connecticut Fire Academy  Introduction  Code of Federal Regulations:  29 CFR  Labor (Department of Labor)  40 CFR  Protection of Environment (EPA)  49 CFR  Transportation (DOT)

7 Connecticut Fire Academy  Goal The goal of the competencies in this The goal of the competencies in this chapter shall be to provide personnel already on the scene of a hazardous materials / WMD incident with the knowledge and skills to perform the tasks in 4.1.2.2. safely and effectively. NFPA 4.1.2.1

8 Connecticut Fire Academy  Goal Analyze (recognize) Analyze (recognize) Plan Plan Implement Implement Evaluate Evaluate Terminate Terminate NFPA 4.1.2.2

9 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the incident to determine both the hazardous materials / WMD present and the basic hazard and response information for each hazardous materials / WMD agent by completing the following tasks: a)Detect b)Survey c)Collect NFPA 4.1.2.2(1) Awareness Level Personnel

10 Connecticut Fire Academy Implement Actions consistent with the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) and the current edition of the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook by completing the following tasks: a)Initiate Protective Actions. b)Initiate the Notification Process. Instructor Note: Review Sample LERP and SOP / SOG with Students Implement Actions NFPA 4.1.2.2(2)

11 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Given examples of various situations, Awareness level personnel shall identify those situations where hazardous materials / WMD are present by completing the following requirements. NFPA 4.2.1

12 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Identify the definitions of both Hazardous Materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD. NFPA 4.2.1(1)

13 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD National Fire Protection Association  A substance (solid, liquid, or gas or energy) when released is capable of creating harm to people, the environment, and property including WMD as defined in 18 U.S. Code 2332a Hazardous Materials NFPA 3.3.28

14 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Department of Transportation (DOT)  It covers all of the 11 hazard classes and divisions.  Includes Hazardous Substances & Waste (EPA terms) Hazardous Materials NFPA Appendix I.2.1

15 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Chemicals that, if released into the environment above a certain amount, must be reported, and depending on the threat to the environment, federal involvement in handling the incident can be authorized.  Also found in 40 CFR 203 and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Substances NFPA Appendix I.2.2

16 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Chemicals that must be reported to the appropriate authorities if released above the threshold reporting quantity.  Found in Title III of SARA 40 CFR 355 Extremely Hazardous Substances Instructor Note: Review Reportable Quantity (RQ) list with Students NFPA Appendix I.2.3

17 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Chemicals whose total emissions or releases must be reported annually by owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical.  Found in Title III of SARA 40 CFR 355 Toxic Chemicals NFPA Appendix I.2.4

18 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Chemicals that are regulated under the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act. Hazardous Wastes NFPA Appendix I.2.5

19 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Occupational Safety and Health Admin:  Any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place.  The term covers a broader group of chemicals than the other chemical terms Hazardous Chemicals NFPA Appendix I.2.6

20 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD Occupational Safety and Health Admin:  Those Chemicals that possess toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive properties.  Fall under 29 CFR 1910.119 “ Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals ” Highly Hazardous Chemicals NFPA Appendix I.2.8

21 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Identify the definitions of both hazardous materials (or Dangerous Goods, in Canada) and WMD In Canadian Transportation, hazardous materials are called “ Dangerous Goods ”. Dangerous Goods NFPA Appendix I.2.7

22 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Identify the UN/DOT Hazard classes and divisions of hazardous materials / WMD and identify common examples of materials in each hazard class or division. Will be described in depth in following slides NFPA 4.2.1(2)

23 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD The DOT has classified Hazardous Materials according to their Primary Danger (Worst) and assigned standardized UN Hazard Class Numbers and Symbols to identify the classes. NFPA 4.2.1(2)

24 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  1 - EveryExplosives  2 - GoodGases  3 - FireFlammable Liquids  4 - FighterFlammable Solids  5 - Often Oxidizers  6 - PerformsPoisons  7 - RoutineRadioactive  8 - Care and Corrosive  9 - MaintenanceMiscellaneous NFPA 4.2.1(2)

25 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Bursting Ball or Numerical (beginning with 1)  Cylinder  Open Flame  Flaming “ O ”  Skull and Crossbones  Biological Rings  Trefoil (propeller)  Test Tubes dripping on Hand, Steel Bar NFPA 4.2.1(2)

26 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Materials are grouped by their major hazardous characteristic and many materials will have other hazards as well. Example: A material may be poisonous, corrosive, and flammable but will only be grouped with whichever is considered the WORST hazard and identified by the UN Number NFPA 4.2.1(2)

27 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Identify the primary hazards associated with each UN/DOT hazard class and divisions Will be described in depth in following slides NFPA 4.2.1(3)

28 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Identify differences between hazardous materials / WMD incidents and other emergencies. NFPA 4.2.1(4)

29 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Intent  Severity and Complexity  Crime Scene Management  Incident Command  Secondary Devices  Attacks and Armed Resistance NFPA 4.2.1(4)

30 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Potential for doing great harm effects are far reaching and severe  Responders must be trained and equipped  Long term effects  People  Property  Environment NFPA 4.2.1(4)

31 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify typical occupancies and locations in the community where hazardous materials / WMD are manufactured, transported, stored, used, or disposed of. Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(5)

32 Connecticut Fire Academy  Weapons Depots  Flight Line  Hospitals  Maintenance Facilities  Warehouses  Laboratories  Tank Farms  Truck Terminals Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(5)

33 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Identify typical container shapes that can indicate hazardous materials / WMD. NFPA 4.2.1(6)

34 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Bulk vs. Non-Bulk Bulk Packaging, other than a Vessel or barge, in which materials are loaded with no intermediate form of containment; Greater than 119 Gals. Liquid Greater that 882 pounds or 119 gals for a solid Greater than 1,001 pounds – Compressed Gas Water Capacity Non- Bulk Packaging that is smaller than the minimum criteria established for bulk packaging; Less than the amounts as identified for Bulk Drums, Boxes, Carboys and Bags are examples NFPA 4.2.1(6)

35 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Bulk Transportation  Tank / Rail Cars Non-Pressure Tank Cars Pressure Tank Cars Cryogenic Liquid Tank Cars Hopper Cars Box Cars Special Service Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

36 Connecticut Fire Academy Non-Pressure Tank Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

37 Connecticut Fire Academy Pressure Tank Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

38 Connecticut Fire Academy Cryogenic Liquid Tank Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

39 Connecticut Fire Academy Hopper Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

40 Connecticut Fire Academy Box Cars NFPA 4.2.1(6)

41 Connecticut Fire Academy Special Service Cars High Pressure Tube Car NFPA 4.2.1(6)

42 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Bulk Transportation  Cargo Tanks Non-Pressure Liquid Tanks Low-Pressure Tanks Corrosive Liquid Tanks High-Pressure Tanks Cryogenic Liquid Tanks Compressed Gas/Tube Trailers Dry Bulk Cargo Tank Vacuum Loaded Tank NFPA 4.2.1(6)

43 Connecticut Fire Academy Non-Pressure Liquid Tank MC-306 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

44 Connecticut Fire Academy Low-Pressure Tank MC-307 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

45 Connecticut Fire Academy Corrosive Liquid Tank MC-312 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

46 Connecticut Fire Academy High-Pressure Tank MC-331 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

47 Connecticut Fire Academy Cryogenic Liquid Tank MC-338 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

48 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas / Tube Trailers NFPA 4.2.1(6)

49 Connecticut Fire Academy Dry Bulk Cargo Tank NFPA 4.2.1(6)

50 Connecticut Fire Academy Vacuum Loaded Tank NFPA 4.2.1(6)

51 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Bulk Transportation  Intermodal Containers Non-Pressure Intermodal Tanks Pressure Intermodal Tanks Specialized Intermodal Tanks Cryogenic Intermodal Tanks Tube Modules Freight Containers NFPA 4.2.1(6)

52 Connecticut Fire Academy Non-Pressure Intermodal Tank IM 101 & 102 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

53 Connecticut Fire Academy Pressure Intermodal Tank Spec 51 – Type 5 NFPA 4.2.1(6)

54 Connecticut Fire Academy Specialized Intermodal Tank Cryogenic Type 7 Tube NFPA 4.2.1(6)

55 Connecticut Fire Academy Freight Containers NFPA 4.2.1(6)

56 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Non-Bulk Packaging Bags Carboys Cylinders Drums Dewar Flask (Cryogenic Liquids) NFPA 4.2.1(6)

57 Connecticut Fire Academy Bags NFPA 4.2.1(6)

58 Connecticut Fire Academy Carboys NFPA 4.2.1(6)

59 Connecticut Fire Academy Cylinders NFPA 4.2.1(6)

60 Connecticut Fire Academy NFPA 4.2.1(6) Drums

61 Connecticut Fire Academy Dewar Flask NFPA 4.2.1(6)

62 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Radioactive Materials Excepted Industrial Type A Type B Type C NFPA 4.2.1(6)

63 Connecticut Fire Academy Excepted NFPA 4.2.1(6)

64 Connecticut Fire Academy Industrial NFPA 4.2.1(6)

65 Connecticut Fire Academy Type A NFPA 4.2.1(6)

66 Connecticut Fire Academy Type B NFPA 4.2.1(6)

67 Connecticut Fire Academy Type C   Designed to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by air.  IAEA (International Association of Atomic Energy) has established standards for Type C casks. No successful casks have been designed, built or tested to date. NFPA 4.2.1(6)

68 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Transportation Markings  NFPA 704  Special hazard communication markings for each hazard class  Pipeline Marking  Container Markings  Military Markings Identify facility and transportation markings and colors that indicate hazardous materials / WMD including the following: NFPA 4.2.1(7)

69 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Transportation Markings (placards)  United Nations Class numbers bottom of placard  Four digit ID numbers on placard orange panel Symbols and colors Name of material NFPA 4.2.1(7)(a)

70 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Transportation markings (placards) Marine Pollution marking Elevated Material marking (HOT) Commodity Marking Inhalation marking NFPA 4.2.1(7)(a)

71 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(7)(b) N.F.P.A. 704

72 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD  Class 1, Division 1  Class 1, Division 2  Class 1, Division 3  Class 1, Division 4  Chemical Hazards  Special Warnings Military Hazardous Materials Markings NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

73 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Materials that present a mass detonation hazard Military Hazardous Materials Markings NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

74 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Materials that present an explosion with fragmentation hazard Military Hazardous Materials Markings NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

75 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Materials with a mass fire hazard Military Hazardous Materials Markings NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

76 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Materials that present a moderate fire hazard Military Hazardous Materials Markings NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

77 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Military Hazardous Materials Markings Chemical Hazards Highly ToxicHarassing Agents White Phosphorus Munitions NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c)

78 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Apply No WaterWear Protective Breathing Apparatus NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c) Military Hazardous Materials Markings

79 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD Mustard AgentNerve AgentVX Nerve Agent NFPA 4.2.1(7)(c) Military Hazardous Materials Markings

80 Connecticut Fire Academy Special hazard communication markings for each hazard class  PCB Labels  HMIS (Hazardous Materials Identification System) NFPA 4.2.1(7)(d) Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD

81 Connecticut Fire Academy NFPA 4.2.1(7)(d) Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD

82 Connecticut Fire Academy Pipeline Markings Metal sign placed adjacent to a pipeline right of way. Must Contain Following Information:  Product and Signal Word ”Warning”  Ownership  Emergency Telephone Number Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(7)(e)

83 Connecticut Fire Academy

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87 Markings on a container will provide some indication as to the type of product. Container Markings Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(7)(f)

88 Connecticut Fire Academy Analyze the Incident Given an NFPA 704 marking, describe the significance of the colors, numbers, and special symbols. Blue = Health Red = Flammability Yellow = Reactivity White = Special NFPA 4.2.1(8)

89 Connecticut Fire Academy N.F.P.A. 704

90 Connecticut Fire Academy

91 Identify U.S. and Canadian placards and labels that indicate hazardous materials / WMD Identified in Annex J of the NFPA 472 - 2008 Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(9)

92 Connecticut Fire Academy Placards & Labels Major Hazard: Explosion –Any substance or article, including a device, that is designed to function by explosion (i.e...... an extremely rapid release of gas and heat) or that, by chemical reaction with itself, is able to function by explosion. Divided into 6 divisions Class 1: Explosives NFPA 4.2.1(9)

93 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.1 Mass explosion that affects almost the entire load Examples: Black powder, dynamite, T-N-T Compatibility Group Identification Should Not Influence Responders NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

94 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.2 Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard Examples: Aerial Flares, detonation cord, and power device cartridges NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

95 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.3 Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor projection hazard Examples: Liquid-fueled rocket motors, propellant explosives NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

96 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.4 Presents a minor explosion hazard Examples: Practice ammunition, signal cartridges, line throwing rockets NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

97 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.5 Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion hazard Examples: Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer - fuel oil mixtures, (blasting agents) NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

98 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Class 1.6 Extremely insensitive explosives Examples: Explosive squib devices NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

99 Connecticut Fire Academy Explosives Placards / Labels Explosive placard / Label Orange Background Bursting Ball 1.1 to 1.3 or Numerals 1.4 to 1.6 “ Explosives ” 1.1 – 1.4, 1.6 “ Blasting Agent ” – 1.5 NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

100 Connecticut Fire Academy  Major Hazard: BLEVE  Sub Hazards  Flammable  Oxidizer  Poisonous  Nonflammable  Divided into 3 divisions Class 2: Compressed Gases NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

101 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Class 2.1 Flammable Gases A material that is a gas at 68 º F or less at 14.7 psi or has a boiling point of 68 º degrees or less at 14.7 psi. Ignitable at 14.7 psi in a mixture of 13% or less by volume with air Has a flammable range of at least 12% regardless of the lower limit. Examples: Inhibited (stabilized) butadienes, methyl chloride, propane NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

102 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Class 2.2 Non-Flammable / Non-Poisonous Gases Any material or mixture that exerts absolute pressure of 41 psia at 68 º Compressed gases including: liquefied gas pressurized cryogenic gas compressed gas in solution Examples: Anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic argon, carbon dioxide, compressed nitrogen NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

103 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Class 2.3 Poisonous Gas Vaporizes easily Very dangerous to life even in small amounts. Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation. Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory testing. Examples: Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, arsine chlorine and methyl bromide NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

104 Connecticut Fire Academy  Concentration of a material  Expressed as parts per million (PPM)  Kills half of the lab animals in a given length of time.  Significant in determining the toxicity of a material; the lower the value, the more toxic the substance. LC-50 Lethal Concentration, 50% NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

105 Connecticut Fire Academy  Hazard Zone A LC 50 < or = 200 PPM  Hazard Zone B LC50 >200 PPM < 1000 PPM  Hazard Zone C LC50 >1000 PPM < 3000 PPM  Hazard Zone D LC50 > 3000 PPM < or = 5000 PPM Division 2.3 Hazard Zones NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

106 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Placard / Label Flammable Gas Placard / label Red Background White Flame NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

107 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Placard / Label Non-Flammable Gas Placard / Label Green Background White Cylinder NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

108 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Placard / Label Oxidizer Placard / Label Yellow Background Black Flaming letter “ O ” “ Oxygen ” NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

109 Connecticut Fire Academy Compressed Gas Placard / Label Poison Gas Placard / Label White Background Black Skull & Crossbones “ Toxic Gas ” White Skull & Crossbones on Black Diamond “ Inhalation Hazard ” Or 4 Digit Number NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

110 Connecticut Fire Academy  Major Hazard: Burns readily  Definition of Flammable Liquid Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more than 141 degrees F. Class 3: Flammable / Combustible Liquids NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

111 Connecticut Fire Academy Flammable Liquid Three Divisions 3.1 - FP < 0 degrees F 3.2 - FP 0 to < 73 degrees F 3.3 - FP 73 to < 141 degrees F Examples: Acetone, amyl acetate, gasoline, methyl alcohol, and toluene NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

112 Connecticut Fire Academy Combustible Liquid Any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class and has a flash point above 140 degrees F and below 200 degrees F. NOTE: A flammable liquid with a flash point at or above 100 degrees that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class except 9, may be reclassified as combustible. Examples: Mineral oil. Peanut oil, No. 6 fuel oil NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

113 Connecticut Fire Academy Flammable / Combustible Placard / Label Flammable Placards / Label Red Background White Flame “ Flammable ” or “ Combustible ” or 4 digit ID Number (Flammable Label Only) NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

114 Connecticut Fire Academy  Major Hazard: Rapid combustion with a liberation of mass quantities of smoke (toxic).  Divided into 3 divisions Class 4: Flammable SolidsClass 4: Flammable SolidsClass 4: Flammable SolidsClass 4: Flammable Solids NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

115 Connecticut Fire Academy Three Types Desensitized explosives Self-reactive materials Readily combustible solids Examples: Magnesium (pellets, turnings, or ribbons), nitrocellulose NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Flammable Solids Class 4.1

116 Connecticut Fire Academy Wetted Explosives Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties. NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Flammable Solids Class 4.1

117 Connecticut Fire Academy Self-Reactive Materials Materials that are thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even with participation of oxygen NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Flammable Solids Class 4.1

118 Connecticut Fire Academy Readily Combustible Solids Solids that can cause a fire through friction Metal powders that can be ignited. NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Flammable Solids Class 4.1

119 Connecticut Fire Academy Spontaneously Combustible Class 4.2 A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within 5 minutes after coming in contact with air. NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Pyrophoric Materials

120 Connecticut Fire Academy Self-Heating Materials A material that, when in contact with air and without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat. Examples: Aluminum alkyls, charcoal briquettes, magnesium alkyls, and phosphorus NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Spontaneously Combustible Class 4.2

121 Connecticut Fire Academy Dangerous When Wet Class 4.3 Material that, by contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable Or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than 1 l/kg of the material, per hour. Examples: Calcium carbide, magnesium powder, potassium metal alloys and sodium hydride NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

122 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 4.1 Placard / Label White Red & White Vertical Stripes Black Flame “ Flammable Solid ” NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Flammable Solids Placards / Labels

123 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 4.2 Placard / Label White Top Red Bottom Black Flame “Spontaneously Combustible” NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Spontaneously Combustible Placard

124 Connecticut Fire Academy Dangerous When Wet Placard Division 4.3 Placard / Label Blue Background White Flame “ Dangerous When Wet ” NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

125 Connecticut Fire Academy  Major Hazard 5.1: Supports combustion and intensifies fire.  Major Hazard 5.2: Unstable/reactive explosives  Divided into 2 divisions Class 5: Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

126 Connecticut Fire Academy Oxidizers Class 5.1 Materials that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. Examples: Ammonium nitrate, bromine trifluoride, calcium hypochlorite NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

127 Connecticut Fire Academy Organic Peroxide Class 5.2 Any organic compound containing oxygen in the bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides have been further broken down into types a-g (worst to least hazardous). Examples: Dibenzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, peroxyacetic acid NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

128 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 5.1 & 5.2 Division 5.1 & 5.2 Yellow Background Yellow Background “ New ” Red/Yellow Split “ New ” Red/Yellow Split Black Flame Black Flame Division 5.1 & 5.2 Division 5.1 & 5.2 “ Oxidizer ” (5.1) “ Oxidizer ” (5.1) “ Organic Peroxide ” (5.2) “ Organic Peroxide ” (5.2) 4 Digit Number 4 Digit Number Oxidizers Placards / Labels NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

129 Connecticut Fire Academy  Major Hazard: Toxicity, Infectious  Divided into 2 divisions Class 6: Poisonous Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

130 Connecticut Fire Academy Poisonous Materials 6.1 A material, other than a gas, that is either known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans, including irritating materials that cause irritation. Examples: Aniline, Arsenic Compounds, Carbon Tetrachloride, hydrocyanic acid, Tear Gas NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

131 Connecticut Fire Academy Infectious Substances 6.2 (labels Only) A viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes disease in humans or animals. Infectious substance and etiologic agents are synonymous. Hazard Zone A: LC-50 <200 ppm Hazard Zone B: LC-50 200ppm - 1000 ppm Examples: Anthrax, botulism, rabies, tetanus and polio virus NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

132 Connecticut Fire Academy Poisonous & Infectious Placards Division 6.1 & 6.2 White Background Black Skull & Crossbones “ Poison ” (6.1) “ Infectious Substance ” (6.2) 4 Digit Number NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

133 Connecticut Fire Academy Major Hazard: Radioactive poisonous burns Definition: Materials having a specific activity greater than 0.002 microcurie per gram. Divided into 3 Divisions Examples: Cobalt, uranium, hexafluoride, yellow cake Class 7: Radioactive Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

134 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 7 Yellow White / Yellow Split Background Black Trefoil or Magenta Trefoil “ Radioactive ” (7) Class 7: Radioactive Materials Placards NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

135 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Labels White / White (7.1) White / Yellow Split 7.2 & 7.3 Black Trefoil “ Radioactive ” with Roman Numeral I, II, III Class 7: Radioactive Materials Labels Highest Level Medium Level Low Level NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

136 Connecticut Fire Academy Major Hazard: Burns / Emulsification skin damage. Definition: A liquid or solid that cause full thickness destruction of skin at the site of contact, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum. Examples: Nitric acid, phosphorus trichloride, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid Class 8: Corrosive Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

137 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 8 Placard / Label Black / White Split Background Black Steel bar / Hand damaged “ Corrosive ” or 4 Digit Number Class 8: Corrosive Materials Placards / Label NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

138 Connecticut Fire Academy Definition: A material that presents a hazard during transport, but that do not meet the definition of any other hazard class Examples: Adipic acid, PCBs, molten sulfur Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

139 Connecticut Fire Academy Division 9 Placard / Label Black / White Split Background Black / White Bars Top Half White Bottom Half “ Blank ” or 4 digit Number Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

140 Connecticut Fire Academy Definition: Materials that presents a limited hazard during transportation due to their:  Form  Quantity  Packaging No Placards (labels only) Examples: Consumer commodities, small arms ammunition ORM-D Materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels Other Regulated Materials - Domestic

141 Connecticut Fire Academy Forbidden Definition: Materials prohibited from being offered or accepted for transportation. Does not apply if the materials are diluted, stabilized, or incorporated in devices. There is no placard for these items since they aren't transported. Examples: Examples: Class 5.2 Type A materials Class 5.2 Type A materials NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

142 Connecticut Fire Academy Marine Pollutant Definition: Material that has an adverse effect on aquatic life. Material that has an adverse effect on aquatic life. NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

143 Connecticut Fire Academy Elevated – Temperature Material Definition: Materials that, when offered for transportation in a bulk packaging, meets one of the following conditions: Definition: Materials that, when offered for transportation in a bulk packaging, meets one of the following conditions: Liquid at or above 212ºF (100ºC) Liquid at or above 212ºF (100ºC) Liquid with a flash point at or above 100ºF (37º8C) Liquid with a flash point at or above 100ºF (37º8C) that are intentionally heated and transported at or above its flash point. Solid at or above 464ºF (240ºC) Solid at or above 464ºF (240ºC) NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

144 Connecticut Fire Academy Elevated – Temperature Material NFPA 4.2.1(9) Hazardous Materials Markings

145 Connecticut Fire Academy Both GHS and Canadian in ERG NFPA 4.2.1(9) Other Placards or Markers GHS EnvironmentalCanadian – Elevated Temperature and Ammonia

146 Connecticut Fire Academy Dangerous Placard May be placarded as “Dangerous” if 2 or more categories of items that require different placards from Table 2 are being shipped on the same container. If more than 2,205 lbs of one category of material is loaded at one loading facility, the placard from Table 2 must apply NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

147 Connecticut Fire Academy Category of MaterialPlacard Name 1.1Explosives 1.1 1.2Explosives 1.2 1.3Explosives 1.3 2.3Poison Gas 4.3Dangerous When Wet 5.2 Type B, Liquid or Solid, temperature controlled Organic Peroxide 6.1 Materials “ Poisonous by Inhalation ” Only Poison Inhalation Hazard 7 Radioactive Yellow III label Only Radioactive Placarding Table 1 Placard Any Quantity See DOT Chart: Hazardous Materials Marking, Labeling, Placarding Placards & Labels NFPA 4.2.1(9)

148 Connecticut Fire Academy Category of MaterialPlacard Name 1.4Explosives 1.4 1.5Explosives 1.5 1.6Explosives 1.6 2.1Flammable Gas 2.2Non-Flammable Gas 3 Flammable Combustible Liquid Combustible 4.1 Flammable Solid 4.2Spontaneously Combustible Placarding Table 2 Placard 1,001 Pounds (lbs.) or more See DOT Chart: Hazardous Materials Marking, Labeling, Placarding Placards & Labels NFPA 4.2.1(9)

149 Connecticut Fire Academy Category of MaterialPlacard Name 5.1Oxidizer 5.2 Other than Type B Identified in Table 1 Organic Peroxide 6.1 Other than materials Poisonous by Inhalation Poison 6.2(None) 8Corrosive 9 Class 9 ORM-D (None) Placarding Table 2 – Continued Placard 1,001 Pounds (lbs.) or more See DOT Chart: Hazardous Materials Marking, Labeling, Placarding NFPA 4.2.1(9) Placards & Labels

150 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets Shipping Papers Identify basic information on material safety data sheets (MSDS) and shipping papers for hazardous materials. NFPA 4.2.1(10)

151 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets  Why Necessary? Federal Hazard Communication Laws Federal Hazard Communication Laws Right to Know Right to Know Employees Employees Mandatory local communication on hazards Mandatory local communication on hazards  OSHA MSDS on file for all chemicals MSDS on file for all chemicals Stored or Used Stored or Used With facility manager/employer With facility manager/employer NFPA 4.2.1(10)(a)

152 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets  MSDS Information Requirements New GHS Documents 1.Identification 2.Composition / Information on Ingredients 3.Hazards Identification 4.First Aid Measures 5.Fire Fighting Measures Instructor Note: Hand Out Sample MSDS Sheets to Students NFPA 4.2.1(10)(b)

153 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets  MSDS Information Requirements New GHS Documents 6.Accidental Release Measures 7.Handling and Storage 8.Exposure Controls /Personal Protection 9.Physical and Chemical Properties 10.Stability and Reactivity NFPA 4.2.1(10)(b)

154 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets  MSDS Information Requirements New GHS Documents 11.Toxicological Information 12.Ecological Information 13.Disposal Considerations 14.Transport Information 15.Regulatory Information 16.Other Information NFPA 4.2.1(10)(b)

155 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets  MSDS Information Requirements Old Still Out There Chemical Identity TOP Chemical Identity I. Manufacturer’s Name & Location II. Hazardous Ingredients III. Physical Data IV. Fire & Explosion Data V. Reactivity (Instability) Data VI. Health Hazard Data VII. Precautions for Safe Handling VIII. Control Measures NFPA 4.2.1(10)(b)

156 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets Identify entries on shipping papers that indicate the presence of hazardous materials. 1.Product Identification Number a)STCC number (Standard Transportation Commodity Code) * 7 digit number * Applies to rail only b)CAS number (Chemical Abstract Services) * chemical’s social security number 2.Proper Shipping Name 3.Hazard Class and Division 4.Packaging Group NFPA 4.2.1(10)(c)

157 Connecticut Fire Academy Material Safety Data Sheets Identify entries on shipping papers that indicate the presence of hazardous materials. 1.Hazardous Materials Listed First on Sheet 2.Hazardous Materials – Color Highlighted 3.Hazardous Materials – Have Letter “X” or “RQ” prior to Name of Chemical a)RQ – Stands for Reportable Quantity NFPA 4.2.1(10)(c)

158 Connecticut Fire Academy Match the name of the shipping papers found in transportation (air, highway, rail, and water) with the mode of transportation. Shipping Papers 4.2.1(10)(d),(e),(f) will be answered together in coming slides NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d)

159 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the person responsible for having the shipping papers in each mode of transportation Shipping Papers 4.2.1(10)(d),(e),(f) will be answered together in coming slides NFPA 4.2.1(10)(e)

160 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify where the shipping papers are found in each mode of transportation Shipping Papers 4.2.1(10)(d),(e),(f) will be answered together in coming slides NFPA 4.2.1(10)(f)

161 Connecticut Fire Academy  Normal location  Highway  Rail  Water  Air Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d) & (e) & (f)

162 Connecticut Fire Academy  Highway  Called:  Bill of Lading  Freight Bill  Person Responsible:  Driver  Location  In Cab Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d) & (e) & (f)

163 Connecticut Fire Academy  Rail  Called:  Consist (The cars that make up the Train)  Way Bill (Detailed Info on location of cars)  Person Responsible:  Engineer - Conductor  Location  Member of Crew - Engineer Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d) & (e) & (f)

164 Connecticut Fire Academy  Water  Called:  Dangerous Cargo Manifest  Person Responsible:  Captain or Master  Location  Wheelhouse  Tube Container on Barge Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d) & (e) & (f)

165 Connecticut Fire Academy  Air  Called:  Air Bill  Person Responsible:  Pilot  Location  Cockpit / Flight deck  Attached to Package Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(d) & (e) & (f)

166 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify where the papers can be found in an emergency in each mode of transportation  Can Be Obtained:  Shipper / Manufacturer  Through “ CHEMTREC ” Shipping Papers NFPA 4.2.1(10)(g)

167 Connecticut Fire Academy “ CHEMTREC ” Video Approximately 14 Minutes Shipping Papers

168 Connecticut Fire Academy

169 Identify examples of clues (other than occupancy / location, container shape, markings / colors, placards / labels, MSDS, and shipping papers) to include sight, sound, and odor of which indicate hazardous materials / WMD. NFPA 4.2.1(11) Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD

170 Connecticut Fire Academy  Sight Corrosive Actions Chemical Reactions Pooling Liquids Condensation Lines on Pressure Tanks Injured Victims or Casualties Fire or Vapor Cloud  Sound Hissing of Pressure Release Pinging of Heated Metal  Odor Gas Leaks Fire or Vapor Cloud Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(11)

171 Connecticut Fire Academy Describe limitations of using the senses in determining the presence or absence of hazardous materials / WMD. Sight – Injury (too close) Smell – Injury / Death Touch – Injury / Death Taste – Injury / Death Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(12)

172 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least four types of locations that could be targets for criminal or terrorist activity using hazardous Materials / WMD. Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(13)

173 Connecticut Fire Academy  Locations: (But not limited to) Public Assembly Areas Public Buildings Mass Transit Systems Places with High Economic Impact Telecommunications Facilities Places of Historical or Symbolic Significance Military Installations Airports Industrial Facilities Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(13)

174 Connecticut Fire Academy Describe the difference between a chemical and a biological incident. NFPA 4.2.1(14) Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD

175 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Chemical agents. 1)Warning or credible threat received 2)Laboratory Equipment not Relevant to Occupancy 3)Intentional Release of Hazardous Material / WMD 4)Sudden Onset Non-Traumatic illnesses or deaths 5)Unexplained Odor or Taste – Not common to area Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(15)

176 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Chemical agents. 6)Multiple Victims with Signs of Skin, Eye, Airway Irritation 7)Unexplained bomb or munitions like material, especially if it contains a liquid 8)Unexplained Vapor Clouds, Mist and Plumes 9)Multiple Victims with health problems such as nausea, vomiting, twitching, sweating, miosis, convulsions; Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(15) SLUDGEM (see slide 176)

177 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Chemical agents. 10) Dead, discolored, abnormal in appearance or withered; Trees, shrubs, bushes, food crops, lawns (not due to current drought) 11) Land and Water Surfaces with Oily droplets / film 12) Abnormal number of Sick, Dead Birds, Animals, Fish 13) Unusual Security, locks, barred or covered windows, barbered wire Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(15)

178 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Chemical agents. S – Salivation L – Lacrimation U – Urination D – Defecation G – Gastrointestinal Upset E – Emesis M – Miosis Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(15)

179 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Biological agents. 1)Warning or credible threat received 2)Unusual number of sick or dying people or animals (any number of symptoms, most Flu like, varied species) 3)Time delay before symptoms are observed, depends on agent used 4)Health care facilities reporting multiple casualties with similar signs or symptoms over large land area Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(16)

180 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Biological agents. 5)Unscheduled or unusual spray being disseminated, especially if outdoors during periods of darkness 6)Abandoned spray devices (with No Distinct Odor) 7)Non-endemic illness for geographic area 8)Casualty distribution aligned with Wind Direction Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(16)

181 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Radiological agents. 1)Warning or credible threat received 2)Radiation detected through monitoring 3)Extremely large / Powerful Explosion 4)Possible Mushroom Cloud 5)Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(17)

182 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Radiological agents. 6)Signs and symptoms of radiation sickness 7)Radiological packaging left unattended 8)Extreme weight of package due to shielding 9)Material hot or emits heat without external source 10)Glowing Material – Some radioactive emit radioluminescence Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(17)

183 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Illicit laboratories (clandestine labs, weapons lab, ricin lab) 1)Unusual Security Systems and Devices 2)Windows / Opening covered with plastic or tinfoil 3)Strong Solvent odors 4)Odor of Ammonia, Starting Fluid, Ether 5)Iodine / Chemical stained fixtures Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(18)

184 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Illicit laboratories (clandestine labs, weapons lab, ricin lab) 6)Discoloration of structures, pavement, soil 7)Unusual Structures 8)Increased activity, especially at night 9)Excessive trash, large amounts similar remnants 10)Knowledge that Renters pay landlords in cash Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(18)

185 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Explosives 1)Warning or credible threat received 2)Reports of “Explosion” or actual “Explosion” 3)Accelerant Odors 4)Multiple fires or explosions Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(19)

186 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Explosives 5)Incendiary device or bomb components 6)Unusually fast burning 7)Unusual Colored smoke or flames 8)Propane or other flammable cylinders in unusual locations Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(19)

187 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of possible criminal or terrorist activity involving Explosives 9)Unattended packages / backpacks / objects left in high traffic area 10)Excessive Damage not normally seen, bent steel, shattered concrete 11)Shrapnel evidence; nuts, bolts, nails Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(19)

188 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify at least 4 indicators of Secondary Devices 1)Containers with unknown liquids or materials 2)Unusual devices or containers with electronic components: such as – wires, circuit boards, antennas, cell phones 3)Devices containing quantities of fuses, fireworks, match heads, black powder, smokeless powder, incendiary materials 4)Ordinance such as blasting caps, detcord, military / commercial explosives, grenades Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(20)

189 Connecticut Fire Academy “ Safety Tips ” for Secondary Devices 1)Evaluate the scene for likely areas where secondary devices might be placed. 2)Visually scan operating areas for a secondary device. 3)Avoid touching or moving anything that might conceal an explosive device. 4)Designate and enforce scene control zones. 5)Evacuate victims, other responders, and nonessential personnel as quickly and as safely as possible. Analyze the Incident Detecting the Presence of Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.1(20)

190 Connecticut Fire Academy Given examples of hazardous materials / WMD Awareness level personnel shall, from a safe location, identify the hazardous material(s) / WMD involved in each situation by name, UN/NA identification number or type placard by completing the following requirements. Analyze the Incident Surveying Hazardous Materials / WMD NFPA 4.2.2

191 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify difficulties encountered in determining the specific names of hazardous materials / WMD at facilities and in transportation.  Facilities  Placard or Label Missing  Hazard Class but No Product Identifier  Mixed Loads with Only One Placard  Error in Placarding or Labeling  Shipping Papers not Accessible Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(1)

192 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify difficulties encountered in determining the specific names of hazardous materials / WMD at facilities and in transportation.  Transportation  Placards or Labels Missing  No Specific Product Names (placards/labels)  Mixed Loads  Shipping Papers Not Available NFPA 4.2.2(1) Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information

193 Connecticut Fire Academy Hazardous occupancies and problem locations should be identified and evaluated during pre-incident planning Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(1)

194 Connecticut Fire Academy Hazardous materials that are manufactured, stored, processed, or used at a particular site are NOT subject to regulations affecting Transported materials. Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(1)

195 Connecticut Fire Academy Personnel developing the Pre-Incident Plans should seek assistance from the facility manager in identifying hazardous materials locations and recording them on the plan in a way that will be useful to the first-arriving companies. Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(1)

196 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify sources for obtaining the names of, UN/NA identification numbers for, or types of placard associated with hazardous materials / WMD in transportation. Emergency Response Guidebook Shipping Papers Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(2)

197 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify sources for obtaining names of hazardous materials in a facility.  Material Safety Data Sheets  Markings on Storage Containers  Emergency Planning Documents Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.2(3)

198 Connecticut Fire Academy Given the identity of various hazardous material / WMD, (name, UN/NA identification number or type placard), awareness level personnel shall identify the fire, explosion and health hazard information for each material by using the current edition of the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook by completing the following requirements: Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.3

199 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify three methods for determining the appropriate guide page for a specific hazardous Material. Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.3(1)

200 Connecticut Fire Academy 1.Yellow Pages 4 digit UN/NA ID Number 4 digit UN/NA ID Number 2.Blue Pages Name of Material Name of Material 3.Table of Placards When UN/NA number or Material Name unavailable … but placard is visible Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.3(1)

201 Connecticut Fire Academy NFPA 4.2.3(1) Analyze the Incident

202 Connecticut Fire Academy Informational Pages How To Use the ERG ERG Content Emergency Numbers Table of Placards Rail / Road ID Chart Intermodal Codes Intro to Isolation Table P.P.E.Terrorism Glossary of Terms Analyze the Incident NFPA 4.2.3(1) BEFORE AN EMERGENCY – BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THIS GUIDEBOOK! In the U.S., according to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 29 CFR 1910.120), and regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 40 CFR Part 311), first responders must be trained regarding the use of this guidebook. RESIST RUSHING IN ! APPROACH INCIDENT FROM UPWIND STAY CLEAR OF ALL SPILLS, VAPORS, FUMES, SMOKE AND SUSPICIOUS SOURCES Note: In the 2012 ERG White pages are in new locations from 2008 Additional information added

203 Connecticut Fire Academy Four Digit ID Number – Placard – Orange Panel – Shipping Papers – Packaging – “P” Indicates Polymerization Hazard For Spill / No Fire and “Highlighted” Go To “GREEN PAGES Analyze the Incident Yellow Pages Numerical Listing

204 Connecticut Fire Academy Name of Material – Placard – Shipping Papers – Packaging – “P” Indicates Polymerization Hazard Analyze the Incident NFPA 4.2.3(1) For Spill / No Fire and “Highlighted” Go To “GREEN PAGES Blue Pages Alphabetical Listing

205 Connecticut Fire Academy Guide Numbers – Potential Hazards – Health – Fire / Explosion – Public Safety – Protective Clothing – Evacuation – Emergency Response – Fire – Spill or Leak – First Aid Remember! It’s called a “Guidebook Remember! It’s called a “Guidebook Because it’s only a “Guide” Because it’s only a “Guide” Analyze the Incident NFPA 4.2.3(1)

206 Connecticut Fire Academy Table of Isolation & Protective Action 1.Id. # Name of Material – Numerical Order – Small / Large Spills – First Isolate – Protect Downwind – Day / Night 2.Table of Water Reactive -TIH Gases 3.Six Common TIH Gases – TIH Gases Analyze the Incident NFPA 4.2.3(1)

207 Connecticut Fire Academy TABLE 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances TABLE 1 - Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances suggests distances useful to protect people from vapours resulting from spills involving dangerous goods that are considered : ●toxic by inhalation (TIH), ●chemical warfare agents and ●materials that produce toxic gases upon contact with water. Table 3 In this table, the substances are presented in numerical order of their ID numbers. An asterisk (*) next to the ID number indicates to consult Table 3 for more information. Table 1 Analyze the Incident

208 Connecticut Fire Academy

209 This table provides, for small and large spills, the distances for: ●The Initial Isolation Zone and, ●The suggested Protective Action Zone, downwind, for day and night. The distances show the areas likely to be affected during the first 30 minutes after the materials are spilled, and this distance could increase with time. The responders must choose a protective actions: evacuation, shelter in place or a combination of both (see page 288 of the ERG2012). Analyze the Incident Table 1

210 Connecticut Fire Academy The definitions are as follow: ●Small Spill: ●Small Spill: A spill that involves quantities that are less than 208 litres (55 U.S. Gallons) for liquids and less than 300 kilograms (660 pounds) for solids. Generally involves a single small package, a small cylinder, or a small leak from a large package. ●Large Spill: ●Large Spill: A spill that involves quantities that are greater than 208 litres (55 U.S. Gallons) for liquids and greater than 300 kilograms (660 pounds) for solids. Generally involves a spill from a large package, or multiple spills from many small packages. For any intermediate quantity, the distances would need to be estimated between the distances provided for small and large spills. Analyze the Incident Small and Large Spills

211 Connecticut Fire Academy SURROUNDING Defines an area SURROUNDING the incident in which persons may be exposed to dangerous (upwind) and life threatening (downwind) concentrations of material. Analyze the Incident Initial Isolation Zone

212 Connecticut Fire Academy ●Defines an area DOWNWIND from the incident in which persons may become incapacitated and unable to take protective action and/or incur serious or irreversible health effects; Table 1 ●For practical purposes, the Protective Action Zone is a square, whose length and width are the same as the downwind distance shown in Table 1 (see diagram in the following page); Analyze the Incident Protective Action Zone

213 Connecticut Fire Academy The shape of the area in which protective should be taken actions (the Protective Action Zone) is shown in the figure below. Analyze the Incident Protective Action Zone

214 Connecticut Fire Academy It is important to note that Protective Action Zones do not only depend on the mere presence of gases/vapours but mainly on its concentration in the air : ●During the day, ●During the day, there is an increase of the atmospheric disturbances creating a greater dispersion (dilution) of the gases/vapours, which results in a weaker toxic concentration in the air and thus requires a smaller Protective Action Zone than at night. ●During the night, ●During the night, the gases/vapours will calmly dissipate. This will result in a higher toxic concentration in the air and consequently, necessitate a greater Protective Action Zone. Analyze the Incident Protective Action Zone

215 Connecticut Fire Academy TABLE 2 – Water-Reactive Materials which Produce Toxic Gases TABLE 2 – Water-Reactive Materials which Produce Toxic Gases contains: ●A list of materials which produce large amount of Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) gases when spilled in water and identifies the TIH gases produced. ●The substances are presented in numerical order of their ID Numbers. Table 1 These Water Reactive materials are easily identified in Table 1 as their name is immediately followed by (when spilled in water). Analyze the Incident Table 2

216 Connecticut Fire Academy

217 Important: ●Some Water Reactive materials are also TIH materials themselves (e.g., Bromine trifluoride (ID No. 1746)). Table 1 In these instances, two entries are provided in Table 1: ●One for when spilled on land and, ●The other for when spilled in water. Table 1Table 2 ORANGE ●If the Water Reactive material is NOT a TIH and this material is NOT spilled in water, Table 1 and Table 2 do not apply and safety distances will be found within the appropriate ORANGE guide. Analyze the Incident Table 2

218 Connecticut Fire Academy TABLE 3 – Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances for Different Quantities of Six Common TIH Gases: ●A list of Toxic Inhalation Hazard materials that may be more commonly encountered. ●The materials are: ●Ammonia, anhydrous (UN1005) ●Chlorine (UN1017) ●Ethylene oxide (UN1040) ●Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous (UN1050) and Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid (UN2186) ●Hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous (UN1052) ●Sulfur dioxide / Sulphur dioxide (UN1079) Analyze the Incident Table 3

219 Connecticut Fire Academy Important: The materials are presented in alphabetical order and provide initial isolation and protective action distances for large spills (more than 208 litres or 55 US gallons) involving different container types (therefore different volume capacities) for day time and night time situations and different wind speeds. Analyze the Incident Table 3

220 Connecticut Fire Academy

221 Placards – Table of Placards Dealing with:  Mixed Load  Unidentified Cargo 1Guide 111 2Dangerous Placard Table of Placards NFPA 4.2.3(1)

222 Connecticut Fire Academy

223 Rail Car and Road Trailer Identification Chart Used as Last Resort Used Only for the Rail and Highway Modes of Transportation NFPA 4.2.3(1)

224 Connecticut Fire Academy Rail Car Chart

225 Connecticut Fire Academy Road Trailer Identification Chart

226 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the two general types of hazards found on each guidebook page.  Fire or Explosion Hazard  “ P ” Polymerization Hazard when applicable  Health Hazard Highest Potential Hazard will be listed First Analyze the Incident Collecting Hazard Information NFPA 4.2.3(2)

227 Connecticut Fire Academy Emergency Response Guide Video Approximately 20 minutes in length Analyze the Incident

228 Connecticut Fire Academy

229 NFPA 4.2.3(2)

230 Connecticut Fire Academy The NIOSH Pocket Guide has been designed to provide chemical-specific data to supplement general industrial hygiene knowledge. To maximize the amount of data provided in this limited space, abbreviations and codes have been used extensively. These abbreviations and codes, which have been designed to permit rapid comprehension by the regular user, are discussed for each column in the following subsections. The chemical name found in the OSHA General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 1910.1000) is listed in the top left portion of each chemical table. The chemical name found in the OSHA General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 1910.1000) is listed in the top left portion of each chemical table. Analyze the Incident NFPA 4.2.3(2)

231 Connecticut Fire Academy Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions Given examples of hazardous material / WMD incidents, the emergency response plan, the standard operating procedures and the current edition of the Emergency Response Guidebook, awareness level personnel shall be able to identify the actions to be taken to protect themselves and others and to control access to the scene by completing the following requirements: NFPA 4.4.1

232 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the location of both the emergency response plan and / or standard operating procedures.  Applicable to Each Jurisdiction  Kept with Responsible Agencies NFPA 4.4.1(1) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions

233 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the role of the awareness level personnel during hazardous materials / WMD incidents. Awareness-level Personnel can:  Recognize a potential hazardous materials incident  Isolate the area  Call for assistance Awareness-level Personnel Take Protective Actions Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(2)

234 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the following basic precautions to be taken to protect themselves and others in hazardous materials / WMD incidents. Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)

235 Connecticut Fire Academy 1. IAW the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) or SOPs 2. Take protective action to isolate the hazard area a)Evacuate those in danger from the immediate area. b)Deny entry to unauthorized personnel 3. If evacuation is not possible a)Responders are to provide in ‑ place protection b)Keep victims away from doors and windows due to blast hazard Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)

236 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the precautions necessary when providing emergency medical care to victims of hazardous materials / WMD incidents. Consider Victim Decontamination Awareness level (Not a Responder Level) NO Respiratory Protection NO PPE Understand Limitations Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)(a)

237 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify typical ignition sources found at the scene of hazardous materials / WMD incidents. 1) Open Flames 2) Smoking Material ’ s Heat 3) Cutting & Welding Operations 4) Heated Surfaces 5) Frictional Heat 6) Radiant Heat 7) Static, Electrical & Mechanical Sparks 8) Spontaneous Ignition a) Heat Producing Chemical Reactions b) Pyrophoric Materials Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)(b)

238 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the ways hazardous materials / WMD are harmful to people, the environment and property. Thermal Etiologic Asphyxiation Mechanical Corrosive Poisonous Radiation Psychological Also called TRACEM with a Double P Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)(c)

239 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the general routes of entry for human exposure to hazardous materials / WMD.  Contact  Direct Skin Contact  Absorption  Entry through skin, eyes or membranes  Inhalation  Includes breathing in the material  Ingestion  Material enters through the mouth  Injection  Can be a puncture such as a needle  includes entry through a wound or cut Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions NFPA 4.4.1(3)(d)

240 Connecticut Fire Academy Given examples of hazardous materials / WMD and the identity of each hazardous material / WMD (name, UN/NA identification number, or type placard), identify the following response information: Emergency Actions (Fire, Spill, Leak, First Aid) Personal Protective Equipment Initial Isolation & Protective Action Distances Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(4)

241 Connecticut Fire Academy Given the name of a hazardous material, identity the recommended personal protective equipment from the following list:  Street Clothing and Work Uniforms  Structural Fire-Fighting Protective Clothing  Positive Pressure Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus  Chemical-Protective Clothing and Equipment. Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(5)

242 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the definitions for each of the following protective actions: Isolate of the Hazard Area and Denial of Entry Evacuation Sheltering In-Place (Protection) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(6)

243 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the definitions for each of the following protective actions:  Isolate of the Hazard Area and Denial of Entry Everybody not directly involved in the emergency response operations should be kept away from the affected area. Unprotected emergency responders should not be allowed entry. Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(6)(a)

244 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the definitions for each of the following protective actions:  Evacuation The movement of everyone from the threatened area to a safer place. To perform an evacuation, there must be enough time to warn the people, to get them ready to go, and leave the area. Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(6)(b)

245 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the definitions for each of the following protective actions:  Sheltering In-Place (Protection) Used when an evacuation cannot be performed When evacuating the public would put them at greater risk than directing them to stay in place. Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(6)(c)

246 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the size and shape of recommended initial isolation and protective action zones. Initial Isolation Zone is Circular. The Protective Action Zone is a Square Shape. USE CURRENT ERG NFPA 4.4.1(7) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions

247 Connecticut Fire Academy Initial Isolation Zone and Protective Action Zone NFPA 4.4.1(7)

248 Connecticut Fire Academy NFPA 4.2.3(1) Initial Isolation Zone and Protective Action Zone

249 Connecticut Fire Academy Describe the difference between small and large spills as found in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances in the DOT ERG. Small spill Large spill NFPA 4.4.1(8) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions

250 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the circumstances under which the following distances are used at a hazardous materials / WMD incident:  Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances  Isolation Distance in the Numbered Guides NFPA 4.4.1(9) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG

251 Connecticut Fire Academy Describe the difference between the isolation distances in the orange-bordered guide pages and the protective action distances in the green bordered ERG pages. Orange-Bordered Pages Green-Bordered Pages NFPA 4.4.1(10) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions USE CURRENT ERG

252 Connecticut Fire Academy

253 NFPA 4.4.1(10)

254 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify the techniques used to isolate the hazard area and deny entry to unauthorized persons at hazardous materials / WMD incidents. Use Vehicle to Block a Road Divert Traffic Erect Barricades Close Doors and Gates Public Address System NFPA 4.4.1(11) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions

255 Connecticut Fire Academy Identify four specific actions necessary when an incident is suspected to involve criminal or terrorist activity.  Protect Yourself and Other Personnel  Communicate Suspicions During Notifications  Isolate Potentially Exposed People or Animals  Document Initial Observations  Be Alert – Booby Traps / Explosive Devices  Preserve Evidence  Establish Control Zones / Access Control Points  Prevent Secondary Contamination (Includes Patients) NFPA 4.4.1(12) Implementing the Planned Response Initiating Protective Actions

256 Connecticut Fire Academy Given scenarios involving hazardous materials / WMD incidents, awareness level personnel shall identify the initial notifications to be made and how to make them, consistent with the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) NFPA 4.4.2 Implementing the Planned Response Initiating the Notification Process

257 Connecticut Fire Academy To make the appropriate notifications the awareness level responder must: Be Familiar with the Local Notification Process Rapidly Set the Proper Notification Process in Motion Stay Safe, Keep Others Safe 911 NFPA 4.4.2 Implementing the Planned Response Initiating the Notification Process

258 Connecticut Fire Academy 258 Awareness – Practical Application Have Students Perform Various Task Utilizing Placards, the Emergency Response Guidebook and the NIOSH Guidebook and the Connecticut Fire Academy Activities Guide Provided Instructor should provide various Chemical Names, UN Identification Numbers and Scenarios based on the Local Jurisdiction to Stimulate Students Response NFPA 4.1

259 Connecticut Fire Academy NEVER FORGET


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