Mining Mining plays an important role in the settling of America’s West. 1859 – Henry Comstock – Staked a claim near Virginia City, NV. – Did not find gold; sold his stake a few months later for $11,000. – The clay that made it difficult for him to mine gold was nearly pure silver ore. Comstock Lode – Generated more than $230 million; helped finance the war. Quickly growing towns became known as boomtowns.
Mining Boomtowns – Rowdy places with violence and thievery. – Law enforced by vigilance committees – self- appointed volunteers who would track down and punish wrongdoers. Men arrived first followed by women. Women – Worked in laundries or as cooks. – “Hurdy-gurdy” houses – women waited on tables and danced with men for the price of a drink. Many boomtowns did not last; disappeared after the mines closed.
Mining Mining spurs growth – Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, the Dakotas, and Montana become states. – Successful mines in Colorado yield more than $1 billion in silver and gold. – Railroads built through the Rocky Mountains. – Denver becomes a major city.
Mining Mining Techniques – Placer mining – uses picks, shovels, and pans. – Sluice mining – diverted water from river beds into trenches to separate heavy minerals. – Hydraulic mining – spraying high pressure water against a hillside to expose the minerals. – Quartz mining – miners go underground to extract minerals.
Cattle Ranching Many begin herding cattle on the Great Plains. – Long believed to be impossible; water was scarce and prairie grasses were tough to eat. Texas longhorn – Breed of cattle adapted to the Great Plains. – 5 million longhorns roamed Texas.
Cattle Ranching Open range – Vast area of grassland owned by the federal government. – Ranchers could graze their herds free of charge. Cattle Drives – Ranchers sought to round up the longhorns and sell them in the East. – Key: get them to the railroad. Chisholm Trail – Texas to Kansas. – Cattle sold for ten times the price.
Cattle Ranching Long drives end. – As more move into the Great Plains range wars erupt. – Ranchers use barbed wire to keep their animals closer to food and water sources. Influx of investment from the East and Britain causes an oversupply of animals. – Prices plummet. – The days of open range were over.
Hispanics Southwest – Hispanics dominated the population. – Influx of settlers diminishes their status. – Clashes over land. – Mexican American land claims rarely stood up in court. Vaqueros – Spanish for cowboy. – Taught American cowboys their trades. – Introduced words like “lariat,” “lasso,” and “stampede.”
Hispanics Las Vegas – English-speaking ranchers tried to fence in land. 1889 – Las Gorras Blancas – Hispanic New Mexicans. – Raided ranches owned by English-speakers. – Ended in 1890 when the governor threatened to call in federal troops.
Great Plains Farming Population of the Great Plains grows. – Land once thought worthless for farming is transformed into the wheat belt. Challenges for homesteaders – No timber for building; build houses out of sod. – Water – had to drill wells more than 100 feet deep and operate the pump by hand.
Populating the Plains Railroad companies – Sold land along rail lines at low prices and provided credit. 1870s – rainfall on the Plains well above average. 1862 – Homestead Act encourages settlement – For a $10 registration fee, a person could file for a homestead – a tract of public land available for settlement. – Homesteaders could claim up to 160 acres. – Would receive title to that land after five years. More settlers move to the Plains.
Plains Life Difficult life – Summer temperatures greater than 100°F. – Prairie fires a frequent danger. – Grasshopper/Locust swarms destroyed crops. – Terrible blizzards and extreme cold in winter. Most learn to deal.
Agriculture Revolution Dry farming – Plant seeds deep in the ground where there was enough moisture for them to grow. 1860s – Plows, seed drills, reapers, and threshing machines in use. Problem – Soil on the plains could blow away during the dry season. – Many sodbusters – those who plowed the Plains – lost their homes to drought, wind erosion, and overuse of the land.
Wheat – A crop that could endure the dry conditions of the Plains. Wheat Belt – Encompassed much of the Dakotas and parts of Nebraska and Kansas. – Some wheat farms covered 50,000 acres. – Bonanza farms – large wheat farms that yielded big profits.
Wheat 1880s – U.S. the world’s leading exporter of wheat. Late 1880s – Severe drought destroyed crops and turned soil to dust. – Competition from other countries and a glut of wheat caused prices to drop. Farmers try to make it by mortgaging their land. – Fail to make their mortgage payments? – Forfeit the land to the bank.
Oklahoma April 1889 – Government opened one of the last territories for settlement. – Oklahoma Land Rush. “Closing of the Frontier” – No more frontiers.
Changes – Water from deep wells enables people to plant trees and gardens. – Railroads brought building materials – lumber and brick – and manufactured goods. – Small-scale farmers could be self-sufficient.
Natives of the Plains For centuries the Great Plains was home to Native Americans. Many groups were nomads. Main source of food? – Buffalo.
Natives of the Plains Plains Indian Nations – Divided into bands of up to 500 people. – Believed in the spiritual power of the natural world. Ranchers, miners, and farmers – Deprived natives of their hunting grounds. – Broke treaties guaranteeing certain lands. – Forced them to relocate to new territory. Resistance – Attacked wagon trains, stagecoaches, and ranches. – Sometimes settlers and natives would go to war.
Dakota Uprising 1862 – Dakota Sioux launch a major uprising in Minnesota. – Sioux had agreed to live on a reservation in return for annuities. – Annuities – annual payments from the government. – Annuities frequently never reached them. – Many lived in desperate poverty and faced starvation. Chief Little Crow – Asked local traders to provide food on credit. – One replied: “If they are hungry, let them eat grass or their own dung.” – Two weeks later: Dakota take up arms. – The trader is found dead with his mouth stuffed with grass.
Dakota Uprising Little Crow agreed to lead the uprising. – Dakota Sioux slaughter hundreds of settlers in the area. After the Rebellion – 307 Dakota sentenced to death. Later reduced to 38.
Red Cloud Lakota – Nomadic tribe who fought to keep control of their hunting grounds. – Did not intend to let settlers have it. – Chiefs Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull led them. 1866 – 1868: “Red Cloud’s War” – Fetterman’s Massacre – Crazy Horse lured Captain William Fetterman and about 80 soldiers to pursue a supposed small raiding party. – Hundreds of warriors were waiting and wiped out the entire unit.
Sand Creek Tensions in Colorado between miners and the Cheyenne and Arapaho. – Bands of natives begin to raid wagon trains and stealing cattle and horses. Summer of 1864 – 200 settlers had been killed. – Natives ordered to surrender – would be given food and protection. – Any others would be subject to attack. Chief Black Kettle brought several hundred Cheyenne to Fort Lyon to negotiate peace. – Fort’s commander did not have the authority to negotiate. – Told Black Kettle to make camp at Sand Creek.
Sand Creek Colonel John Chivington was then ordered to attack the Cheyenne at Sand Creek. – Since the Cheyenne had been attacking settlers, there could be no peace. Sand Creek Massacre – Not clear on what actually happened. – Some say the Cheyenne were flying both the U.S. flag and a white flag. – Others: troops fired on unsuspecting Cheyenne and brutally murdered hundreds of women and children. – Others: savage battle in which both sides fought ferociously for two days. – Fourteen soldiers died. – Anywhere from 69 to 600 Cheyenne died.
Doomed Peace 1867 – Indian Peace Commission – Proposed the creation of two large reservations. – Agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs would run the reservations. – The army would deal with any groups that refused. Plan doomed to failure – Natives forced to sign treaties. – No guarantee they would abide by them. – Could not prevent settlers from violating the terms. – Those who moved to reservations faced poverty, despair, and corrupt practices of American traders.
Buffalo 1870s – Many natives on the southern Plains left the reservations. – Preferred hunting buffalo on the open plains. Buffalo were rapidly disappearing – Settlers killed off thousands. – Professional buffalo hunters sold hides in the East. – Many killed buffalo for sport; carcasses left to rot. – Railroads hired sharpshooters to kill large numbers. – Army encouraged it to force natives onto reservations. 1889 – very few buffalo remain.
Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 – Prospectors invade the Lakota Sioux reservation. – Lakota – no reason to abide by a treaty that settlers violated. – Many left to hunt in Montana. Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer – Underestimates the fighting capabilities of the Lakota and Cheyenne. Battle of Little Bighorn (Video @ 52:00 )Video – Launches a three pronged attack on Lakota and Cheyenne. – Native force equals nearly 2,000 (One of the largest groups of native warriors ever assembled on the Great Plains). Natives kill all but one of Custer’s 210 soldiers.
Wounded Knee Lakota continued to perform the Ghost Dance – Ritual that celebrated a hoped-for day of reckoning when settlers would disappear, the buffalo would return, and Native Americans would be reunited with their dead ancestors. – Federal authorities had banned the ceremony. – Feared it would lead to violence. 1890 (Video)Video – A group of Ghost Dancers fled the reservation. – Troops tried to disarm them at Wounded Knee Creek. – 25 soldiers and 200 Lakota men, women, and children are killed.
Dawes Act Americans opposed to the treatment of Native Americans. – Solution: Assimilation – Be absorbed into American society as landowners and citizens. – Allotments – reservations divided so families could become self- supporting. 1887 – Dawes Act – Allotted each household 160 acres of reservation land for farming. – Remaining land would be sold to American settlers, with proceeds going to a trust for natives. The plan failed – Little training or enthusiasm for farming. – Allotments too small to be profitable so they sold them. – Assimilation is a failure.
Dawes Act No satisfactory solution to the Native American issue. – Native Americans were doomed because they were dependent on buffalo for food, clothing, fuel, and shelter. Dawes Act – Granted citizenship to Native Americans who stayed on their allotments for 25 years. – Few qualified. 1924 – Citizenship Act granted all Native Americans citizenship. Indian Reorganization Act – reversed the Dawes Act’s policy of assimilation.
Natural Resources U.S. has vast natural resources – Timber, coal, iron, copper. – Could be obtained cheaply. Petroleum (Video @ 1:04 )Video – Could be turned into kerosene. – Industry begins in western Pennsylvania. – Edwin Drake – drilled the first well near Titusville in 1859. Oil leads to economic expansion.
Population Growth 1860 – 1910 – Population nearly triples. – Creates a larger workforce. – Greater demand for consumer goods. Reasons for growth: – Larger families – better living conditions means kids will live longer. – Immigration – people escaping oppressive governments and religious persecution.
Inventors Alexander Graham Bell (Video)Video – Possible to talk by telegraph? – Invented the telephone in 1876. 1877 – Organizes the Bell Telephone Company. – Becomes the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).
Inventors Thomas Alva Edison (Video)Video – Invention factory – Menlo Park, New Jersey. – Holds more than 1,000 patents by the time of his death. – 1877 – phonograph. – 1879 – electric generator and light bulb. – 1882 – an Edison company began to supply electricity to New York City. – 1889 – Edison General Electric Company (later GE).
Inventors George Westinghouse – Invented an air brake system for railroads. – All the cars’ brakes were applied at the same time. – Trains could travel at higher speeds. Alternating current (AC) system – Distribute electricity using transformers and generators. – Worked with Nikola Tesla. (Video)Video Westinghouse Electric Company – Lit Chicago’s Columbia Exhibition in 1893. – Used Niagara Falls to generate electricity for streetcars in Buffalo, NY.
New Technology Thaddeus Lowe – invented the ice machine. Gustavus Swift – founder of Swift Meatpacking – Had the first refrigerated railroad car created. – Refrigeration helps to keep food fresh longer. Textile industry – Northrop automatic loom – cloth could be made much faster. – Standard sizes used in making ready-made clothes. Communication – Cyrus Field – laid a telegraph label across the Atlantic Ocean.
Free Enterprise Laissez-faire – “Let the people choose.” – Government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and maintain peace. – If the government regulates the economy, it increases costs and hurts more than helps. – Relies on supply and demand to regulate wages and prices. – Free market with competing companies leads to greater efficiency and creates more wealth.
Free Enterprise Entrepreneurs – People who risk their own capital to organize and run businesses. – Many begin investing in factories and railroads.
Free Enterprise Laissez-faire in practice – late 1800s – State and federal governments kept taxes and spending low. – Did not impose costly regulations on industry. – Did not try to control wages and prices.
The Railroads 1865 – 35,000 miles. 1900 – more than 200,000 miles. 1862 – Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act – Provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad. – Government offered land along the railroads right- away. Competition – Which side could obtain as much land as possible.
The Railroads The Union Pacific – Greenville Dodge – engineer for Union Pacific. – Began westward from Omaha, Nebraska. – Workers: Civil War veterans, Irish immigrants, ex- convicts… The Central Pacific – Hired about 10,000 workers from China. – Paid them about $1 a day. – All equipment was shipped from the East around Cape Horn or across the Isthmus of Panama.
The Railroads The Last Spike – Railroad completed in 4 years. – Each mile of track required 400 rails. – Each rail took 10 spikes. Central Pacific laid 688 miles of track. Union Pacific laid 1,086 miles of track. May 10, 1869 – Promontory Summit, Utah. – Last spikes hammered in.
The Railroads Consolidation Cornelius Vanderbilt (Video)Video – Successful railroad consolidator. – Offered the first direct rail service between New York City and Chicago. – 1877: net worth $107 million. – Today: Approximately $180 billion.
The Railroads Time – Before 1880s communities set clocks by the position of the sun at noon. – So many time zones created problems with scheduling. – Collisions could occur because of scheduling errors. American Railway Association – Divided the country into four time zones in 1883.
The Railroads Great Plains The government gave land grants to railroad companies to encourage construction. – Railroads would sell land to raise money. – Railroad entrepreneurs accused of swindling investors and taxpayers, bribing officials, and cheating on their contracts. Jay Gould – Most notorious corrupt railroad owner. Robber Barons – People who loot an industry and give nothing back. – Bribery occurred frequently.
Crédit Mobilier Scandal Crédit Mobilier – Construction company set up by investors in the Union Pacific Railroad. – Key investor: Congressman Oakes Ames. – Acting for both, investors signed contracts with themselves. – Crédit Mobilier overcharged the railroad. – The railroad agreed to pay the inflated bill without question. – The stockholders made millions.
Crédit Mobilier Scandal Crédit Mobilier continued… – Union Pacific uses up its federal grants. – Oakes Ames convinces Congress to give the railroad more grants. – He sold other members shares in Union Pacific at price below market value. – Scandal leads to investigations into several members of Congress. – No one was convicted of wrongdoing.
The Railroads Great Northern Railroad – Built by James J. Hill. – From Wisconsin and Minnesota to Washington. – Built without any federal land grants or subsidies. – Route planned to pass close to established towns. – Offered low fares to settlers who settled along route. – Shipped in goods to Washington for shipment to Asia. Most successful transcontinental railroad and only one not forced into bankruptcy.
Big Business Corporation – Organization owned by many people but treated as though it were a person. – Can own property, pay taxes, make contracts, and sue and be sued. Stockholders – People who own the corporation. – They own shares called stocks. – Issuing stocks allows a company to raise large amounts of money while spreading out the financial risk. – Invest in new technologies, hire large workforces, etc…
Big Business Economies of scale – Cost of manufacturing is decreased by producing goods quickly in large quantities. Business cost – Fixed costs – costs a company has to pay whether or not it is operating (loans, mortgages, and taxes). – Operating costs – costs that occur when running a company (wages, shipping, raw materials). Big corporations – Advantages – Produce goods cheaply and efficiently. – Able to operate in poor economic times by cutting prices. Small businesses with high operating costs can not compete.
Big Business Carnegie Steel – Andrew Carnegie – Opened a steel company in Pittsburgh in 1875. – Began vertical integration of the steel industry. Vertical integration – A company owning all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation. – Carnegie’s steel company bought coal mines and iron ore fields. Worth as much as $475 million. Today: Nearly $300 billion.
Big Business Horizontal Integration – Combining firms in the same business into one large corporation. John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil (Video @ 7:50 )Video – Achieves almost complete horizontal integration. – 1870 – Standard Oil the largest oil refiner. – 1880 – Controls nearly 90% of the industry. – Monopoly – when a single company achieves control of an entire market. First person to have a net worth of $1 billion. Today: Nearly $400 billion. – Wealthiest person in American history.
Big Business Many fear monopolies – They could charge whatever they wanted for their products. Standard Oil – International competition forced the company to keep prices low. Stopping the rise of monopolies – Many states make it illegal for one company to own stock in another.
Big Business Getting around the law Trusts – Legal arrangement that allows one person to manage another person’s property. – Manager is called a trustee. – Standard Oil had stockholders give their stocks to a trustee. – Would receive shares in the trust in return. – Could control a group of companies as if they were one.
Big Business Holding Companies – Do not produce anything. – Owns the stock of companies that do. – Merges companies into one large enterprise. Investment Banking – Put new holding companies together. – Help companies issue stock. – Companies sell large amounts of stock to investment bankers at a discount. – Sell the stock for profit.
Big Business J.P. Morgan – Most famous investment banker. – Bought out Andrew Carnegie. – Merged companies into United States Steel Company (U.S. Steel).
Selling the Product Retailers forced to expand in size. – Need new ways to attract consumers. – 1900 – $90 million a year spent on advertising. Department stores begin to develop. – Provided a huge selection of products in one building. – Chain stores first appear – Focus on offering low prices. Mail order catalogs – Reach the millions of people in rural areas. – Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck and Co.
Workers – Performed dull, repetitive tasks in unhealthy and dangerous working conditions. – Increase in standard of living. – Average workers’ wage rises 50%. 1900 – Average industrial wage = $0.59 an hour. – Worked 59 hours a week.
Workers Deflation – Rise of value of money. – Causes prices to fall and increases the buying power of money. – Companies respond by lowering wages. – Unions form to get higher wages and better working conditions.
Unions Two types of workers – Craft workers – those with special skills and training (machinists, stonecutters, printers…) – Common laborers – had few skills and earned lower wages. Unions – Trade Unions – formed by craft workers. – Industrial Unions – united all workers in a particular industry.
Unions Opposition – Employers had to negotiate with trade unions; workers had skills they needed. – Employers viewed unions as conspiracies. – Required workers to sign oaths promising not to join a union. – Hired detectives to indentify union organizers.
Unions Blacklists – Union organizers were fired and put on a blacklist. – No company would hire them. Lockouts – Companies used “lockouts” to break unions. – If workers then went on strike, replacements would be hired.
Strikes Panic of 1873 forces companies to cut wages. 1877 – Baltimore and Ohio Railroad – Cut wages for the third time. Workers walk off the job – 80,000 workers strike. – State militias called in; gun battles erupt. – It took 12 days to restore order. – 100 were dead; $10 million in damage.
Knights of Labor Leader Terrence Powderly – Opposes strikes and instead uses boycotts. – Arbitration – a third party helps workers and employers reach an agreement. Knights Demands – Call for an eight-hour workday. – Equal pay for women. – Abolition of child labor. – Creation of worker owned factories. Welcome women and African Americans as members.
Haymarket Riot Haymarket Riot – 1866 – Supporters of eight-hour workday strike. – 70,000 workers go on strike in Chicago. – Police intervene to stop a fight on the picket line. – Turned violent, police open fire on strikers and four are killed. Protest rally at Haymarket Square – Someone sets off a bomb, killing one police officer. – Police opened fire; 100 people injured. – Eight men arrested; four executed. – One of those arrested was a Knight. – Damages the Knight’s reputation.
Homestead Strike 1892 – Homestead, Pennsylvania (Video)Video Carnegie steel mill managed by Henry Clay Frick. – Union contract was nearing expiration. – Frick proposed to cut wages 20%. – Locks employees out of the plant. – Pinkerton Detective Agency tries to bring in replacement workers. – Strikers refuse to let them into the plant. – Fighting ensues for 14 hours; several men were killed. Strike eventually fails.
Pullman Strike American Railway Union (ARU) – Tries to organize all workers in the railroad industry. – Included workers of the Pullman Palace Car Company. George Pullman – Built a company town called Pullman. – Workers required to live there and buy goods from company stores. 1893 – Pullman slashes wages and lays off workers. – Rent and prices in stores stays the same. – Becomes hard for workers to pay rent and high prices at company stores. – They go on strike.
Pullman Strike Other ARU members refuse to handle Pullman cars. U.S. mail cars attached to Pullman cars. – If strikers refused to hand the Pullman cars they would be interfering with U.S. mail, a violation of federal law. – President Cleveland sent in troops to keep the mail running. – Federal court issued an injunction (court order) directing the union to halt the boycott. Strike collapses.
New Unions American Federation of Labor (AFL) – Promoted the interests of skilled workers. Samuel Gompers – First president of the AFL. AFL goals: – Recognition of unions. – Companies to agree to collective bargaining. – Closed shops – only union members hired. – Eight-hour workday.
New Unions Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) – “The Wobblies.” – Organize all workers by industry. – No distinction between skilled and unskilled workers. – Endorsed using strikes. Most IWW strikes failed.
Working Women 1900 – Women make up 18% of the workforce. – One third as domestic servants. – One third as teachers, nurses, and sales clerks. – One third as industrial workers. Women were paid less than men regardless. – Had a man helping to support her; a man needed to support a family. – Most unions excluded women.
Working Women Mary Harris Jones – famous labor leader. Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) – First women’s labor union. – Called for a eight-hour workday, a minimum wage, abolition of child labor.
Immigration 1865 – 1914 – 25 million immigrants from Europe. – 70% were male. Reasons for immigration: – Plenty of jobs in America. – Escape poverty. – Avoid forced military service. – High food prices. – Overpopulation in Europe. – Flee religious persecution. – Break away from class systems and move up the social ladder.
Immigration Voyage across the Atlantic was difficult. – Steerage – the cheapest accommodations on steamship. – Took 14 days. – Disembarked at Ellis Island. Ellis Island (Video)Video – 12 million immigrants passed through between 1892 and 1954. – Had to file past a doctor for inspection. – If someone was questionable they were separated from the rest in a cage. – Those who failed inspection could have been sent back to Europe.
Immigration Ethnic Cities – Many immigrants settle in cities. – New York, Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit – large percentage of population. – Cities divided by ethnic groups (“Little Italy”) – Spoke their native languages and recreated their homeland.
Immigration Asian Immigration – Chinese settled mainly in western cities. – Worked as laborers, servants, or skilled laborers. – Others become merchants – opened their own businesses. Angel Island (Video)Video – Processed Asian immigrants. – Some waited months for their immigration hearings.
Immigration Nativism – An extreme dislike of immigrants by native-born people. – Focuses mainly on Asians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans. Why? – Influx of Catholics would swamp Protestant U.S. – Immigrants undermined American workers.
Immigration Anti-immigrant organizations – American Protective Association – Henry Bowers Anti-Catholic organization. – Members vowed not to hire or vote for Catholics. Problems with the Irish – Came to escape famine and found only the lowest paying work. – Dominant British, Protestant culture: Irish poverty was the result of laziness. – Had no use for the Catholic Irish.
Immigration New Federal Law – 1882 – Banned convicts, paupers, and the mentally disabled from immigrating to the U.S. – Also put a $0.50 per person tax on every immigrant.
Immigration Asian restrictions Workingman’s Party of California – Fought Chinese immigration. 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented those already here from gaining citizenship. – Was not repealed until 1943. San Francisco – Chinese, Korean, and Japanese children forced to attend a racially segregated “Oriental School”. – After a “Gentlemen’s Agreement” between Japan and the U.S. the policy was reversed.
Immigration 1905 – Literacy Debate – Recommended that immigrants take a literacy test. – Purpose was to reduce immigration from southeastern Europe.
Cities 1900 – New York City – nearly 3.5 million people. – Chicago – 1.6 million. Most immigrants settled in cities. – Worked long hours for little pay. – Standard of living improves. Farmers move to cities – Better paying jobs. Also: – Bright lights, running water, and modern plumbing.
Cities Physical appearance of cities changes. – Price of land rises – incentive to build upward. – Skyscrapers begin to appear. – First skyscraper – ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago. – Louis Sullivan – prominent designer in Chicago. Mass transit: – Cable cars – pulled by underground cables. – Frank J. Sprague – electric trolley car. – Chicago – first elevated railroad. – Boston – first subway system.
Cities High Society – Wealthiest families – Establish fashionable districts in the heart of cities. – Build large, expensive homes. – Had many servants.
Cities Middle-Class Gentility – Doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers, social workers, architects, and teachers. – Move away from central city to escape crime and be able to build larger homes. – Most had at least one live-in servant. – Women given more time to pursue activities outside the home. – “Women’s Clubs” become popular.
Cities Working Class – Most live in crowded tenements – apartment buildings. – Average annual industrial income = $445. – Many families rented space to a boarder.
Family Economy – White native-born men earned higher wages. – Many families rely on more than one wage earner. – Sometimes the entire family would work. Problem – Children faced dangerous working conditions and were not in school. Women work outside the home – Teachers, clerical work, and domestic servants.
Urban Problems Problems of city living – Crime, violence, fire, disease, and pollution. Crime and Pollution – Pickpockets, swindlers, and thieves. – Murder rates jump. – Alcohol contributed to violent crime. – Sewage and waste disposal. Disease – Improper sewage disposal contaminated drinking water – typhoid and cholera.
Political Machines Political machine – Political group designed to gain and keep power. – Party bosses – machine leaders. – Provided jobs, housing, food, heat, and police protection in exchange for votes. – Party bosses controlled the city’s finances. Politicians grew rich from fraud or graft – Getting money through dishonest or questionable means.
Political Machines George Plunkitt – powerful New York City party boss. – “Honest graft” – a politician might learn of a new park and buy the land to later sell it to the city for a profit. Bosses accepted bribes from contractors and sold permits to friends to operate public utilities. Tammany Hall – New York City Democratic machine. – Leader – William “Boss” Tweed. – His corruptness led to a prison sentence.
The Gilded Age Gilded Age – 1870 to1910 – Gilded – something covered in gold on the outside but made of cheaper material inside. – Might appear to sparkle but corruption, poverty, crime, and disparities in wealth are in the inside.
Individualism – No matter how humble their origins, people could rise in society and go as far as their talents would take them.
Social Darwinism – Humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving. Herbert Spencer – Applied Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection to human society. – Natural Selection – species that cannot adapt gradually die out. Society progressed and became better because only the fittest people survived.
Social Darwinism The Church – Rejected the theory of evolution because it contradicted the Bible’s account of creation. Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth – Gospel of Wealth – wealthy Americans should engage in philanthropy. – Use their great fortunes to help people help themselves. – Building schools and hospitals was better than giving handouts to the poor. – Carnegie funded the creation of public libraries.
Changing Culture Literature Mark Twain – The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. (Video)Video Expendable incomes – Money to spend on entertainment and recreation. – Saloons, amusement parks... Sports and Recreation – First professional baseball team: Cincinnati Red Stockings. – Recreational activities – tennis, golf, and croquet. – James Naismith – invented basketball.
Civil Service Reform Spoils system made government inefficient and corrupt. – A push for an end to patronage. 1877 – Rutherford B. Hayes – Tried to end patronage. – Fired officials who got their jobs by supporting the party. – Replaces them with reformers. Divides the Republican party – Stalwarts – supported patronage; Halfbreeds – opposed it. No reforms were passed.
Civil Service Reform Election of 1880 – Republicans nominated James Garfield (Halfbreed) for president and Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart) for vice president. – Republicans win the election – Garfield is assassinated a few months later. Public opinion turns against the spoils system. – Pendleton Act – required that some jobs be filled by competitive written examinations. – Professional civil service – system where most government workers are given jobs based on their qualifications.
Garfield Assassination President James A. Garfield – Does not believe in the spoils system – giving jobs to supporters. Charles Guiteau – Asks Garfield for a job but is repeatedly rejected. – Thought he would have a better chance at a job if VP Chester A. Arthur were president. He shot Garfield on July 2, 1881. – Garfield died a few weeks later. (Video)Video
Election of 1884 – Democrat Grover Cleveland – reputation of being honest. – Republican James G. Blaine – rumored to have accepted bribes. – Some Republicans were so upset with Blaine they supported Cleveland – called “Mugwumps.” Cleveland won the election. – Supporters expected to be rewarded with jobs. – Mugwumps expected him to increase the number of civil service jobs. Cleveland chose a middle course and angered both sides.
Interstate Commerce Commission Americans concerned by the power of large corporations. – Particularly angry at the railroads. – Large corporations were able to negotiate lower rates. – Many states pass laws regulating railroad rates. Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway v. Illinois – States could not regulate railroad rates for traffic between states; only federal government could.
Interstate Commerce Commission Interstate Commerce Act – Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) – First federal law to regulate interstate commerce. – Limited railroad rates to what was “reasonable and just.” – Forbade rebates to high volume users. – Illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls. The commission is not very successful.
Tariffs Belief that tariffs should be cut. – Large American companies could compete internationally. – Made it difficult for farmers to export their surpluses.
Tariffs Election of 1888 Republican Benjamin Harrison (Video)Video – Received large contributions from industrialists who benefitted from high tariffs. Cleveland and Democrats – Campaigned against high tariff rates. Harrison lost the popular vote but won the electoral vote. Republicans gain control of both houses of Congress.
Tariffs McKinley Tariff – Cut tobacco taxes and tariff rates on raw sugar. – Increase rates on goods like textiles. Intended to protect American industry encourage people to buy American goods. Actually triggered a steep rise in the price of all goods. Sherman Antitrust Act – Targeted at large business combinations – trusts. – Had little effect – but did establish precedent.
Reforms Challenging Social Darwinism Henry George – Laissez-faire economics was making society worse. Lester Frank Ward – Reform Darwinism – People had succeeded because of their ability to cooperate. – Competition was wasteful and time consuming. – Government could regulate the economy, cure poverty, and promote education more efficiently.
Reforms Edward Bellamy – Looking Backward – Novel about a man who falls asleep in 1887 and wakes up in 2000. – Nation has become a perfect society with no crime, poverty, or politics. – Government owns all industry and shares the wealth equally with all Americans. Naturalists – Some people fail in life because they were caught up in circumstances they could not control.
Urban Poor Social Gospel – Worked to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideas of charity and justice. – Walter Rauschenbusch – leading voice of the movement. Churches begin to provide social programs to help the poor. Salvation Army – Offered practical aid and religious counseling to the urban poor. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) – Offered libraries, gyms, and low-cost hotel rooms to those in need.
Urban Poor Settlement Houses – Community center where reformers resided and offered medical care, English classes, etc… Jane Addams – Hull House (Video)Video Public Education – Number of public schools increases dramatically. – Immigrants were taught English and American history and culture – Americanization. – Try to instill a strong work ethic. – Taught children specific trades.
Populists Movement Why did farmers join the Populists movement? Economic crisis – New technology enabled farmers to produce more crops, but greater supply meant lower prices. – High tariffs make it hard to sell overseas. Money Supply – Civil War – Greenbacks – paper currency that could not be exchanged for gold or silver. – Millions of dollars worth are issued. – Causes inflation – a decline in the value of money. Prices of goods soar.
Populists Movement Getting inflation under control – The government stopped printing greenbacks – Also stopped making silver into coins. – Deflation – increase in the value of money and decrease in prices. This hits farmers really hard. – Most had to borrow mone. – Interest rates began to rise, – Increased the amount they owed. – Falling prices meant they had to sale crops for less. – Had to make the same payments to the bank.
Populists Movement Patrons of Husbandry – The Grange – First national farm organization Response to crisis: – Pressured legislatures to regulate railroad and warehouse rates. – Created cooperatives – marketing organizations that try to increase prices and lower costs for their members. – Could not charge higher prices. – Buyer could always buy off of someone charging less. – Cooperatives held farmers crops off the market to force prices up. – Could negotiate better shipping rates with the railroads.
Populists Movement States pass “Granger laws” – Tried to regulate railroads; set maximum rates. – Railroads fought back by cutting services. Cooperatives fail because they are too small – Considered by some to be Unions so they refused to deal with them.
Populists Movement Farmers Alliance – Charles W. Macune – leader – had a plan to organize very large coops called exchanges. – Big enough to force farm prices up and make low interest loans. – Some were slightly successful –ultimately they failed. Kansas Farmer’s Alliance – Becomes the People’s Party – Populists. (Video)Video – Nominated people to run for Congress. Southern leaders oppose a third party – Would undermine Democratic control of the South.
The Subtreasury Plan Plan to get Southern Democrats to support the Alliance. Subtreasury Plan – Government warehouses would store crops and provide low interest loans to farmers. – Hold enough crops off the market to force prices up. – Also called for free coinage of silver, tighter regulation of the railroads, and direct election of senators.
People’s Convention Southern farmers willing to break with the Democratic Party – People’s Party National Convention – Omaha, Nebraska – James B. Weaver – Presidential candidate. Platform – Coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1 against gold. – A graduated income tax that taxes higher earnings more heavily. – Eight 8 hour workday. – Immigration restrictions. Most urban workers continue to vote for Democrat. – Cleveland wins a second (non-consecutive) term.
Election of 1896 – Populists believed that Republicans would adopt the gold standard – they do. – Expected the democrats to nominate Cleveland also a proponent of the gold standard. – When Populists endorsed silver, pro-silver Democrats would go to the Populists. Democrats nominate William Jennings Bryan – Strong supporter of silver. – Populists decide to support Bryan.
Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan – Only 36 years old when nominated. – He campaigned for silver. – Most care very little about silver. Republicans choose William McKinley of Ohio.
Election of 1896 Front Porch Campaign – William McKinley – Promised workers a “full dinner pail.” – Meant more to workers than silver money. – Businesses supported McKinley. – Unlimited silver coinage would ruin the country. – McKinley wins easily. Populist Party declines after 1896.
The Exodusters African Americans in south living in poverty. – Most are sharecroppers. – Many headed west to claim homesteads. – Kansas is the destination. – The Exodusters – arrive in 1879.
Populism Farmers Alliance – Urged black farmers to form an alliance – 1886 – Colored Farmers National Alliance. African Americans join the Populist Party – Poor whites follow. – To win back the poor white vote Democratic leaders start a smear campaign. – South would return to “Black Republican” rule. – Begin making it harder and harder for blacks to vote.
Imposing Segregation 15 th Amendment – The right to vote cannot be denied on the basis of race, color, previous condition of servitude – Could be denied on other grounds. Mississippi Poll Tax – Requires all citizens registering to vote to pay a poll tax. – The tax was $2.00. – Beyond the means of the poorest African Americans.
Imposing Segregation Literacy test – Required voters to read and understand the constitution. – Few African Americans had been able to attend school. – Officials would deliberately pick passages that few understood. – Far less strict in applying these to whites. “Grandfather Clause” – Introduced in Louisiana. – If you had an ancestor that could vote in 1867, you could vote. – Exempted most whites.
Legalizing Segregation Segregation – the separation of races. – Southern states passed laws that enforced discrimination. – Laws became known as Jim Crow Laws.
Legalizing Segregation 1883 – Supreme Court overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875 – Legalizes segregation. – 14 th Amendment –no “state” could deny citizens equal protection under the law. – Private organizations – hotels, theatres, and railroads – were exempt and free to practice segregation. – Laws created establishing segregation in nearly all public places. – African Americans could no longer ride in the same railroad cars or drink from the same water fountains as whites.
Plessy v. Ferguson Homer Plessy – African American that challenged a Louisiana law forcing him to ride in a separate railroad car. – He was arrested for riding in a “whites-only” car. Plessy v. Ferguson (Video)Video – Supreme Court sets a new doctrine of “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans. – Facilities were always separate, but they were never equal.
African American Response Late 1800s – mob violence increases in the South. – Average of 187 lynchings – hangings without proper court proceedings – each year. Ida B. Wells (Video)Video – Launched a crusade against lynchings. – Congress rejects an anti-lynching bill. – The number of lynchings decreases due to her efforts. Mary Church Terrell – Lifelong battle against lynching, racism, and sexism. – Also worked in the woman suffrage movement. – Helped found the National Association of Colored Women.
African American Response Booker T. Washington (Video)Video – African Americans should concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than political ones. – Atlanta Compromise – Postpone civil rights and concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality. W.E.B. Dubois (Video)Video – Rejects the Atlanta Compromise. – No advantage in giving up civil rights. – Concerned with protecting and exercising voting rights.
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