Presentation on theme: "Motivation By:- Ranjana Singh. Motivation Motivation:- Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained."— Presentation transcript:
Motivation Motivation:- Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. Three key elements are:- Energized Direction Persistence
Nature of Motivation Individuals differ in their motives Sometimes the individual himself is unaware of his motive. Motives change Motives are expressed differently Motives are complex Multiple motives make the choice of goals difficult for an individual (Depends upon three types of motivational conflicts:- Approach-approach conflict, Avoidance-avoidance conflict & Approach-avoidance conflict)
Classical Theories of Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory :- Given by Abraham Maslow (Psychologist) Every person is Hierarchy of five needs:- Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self Actualization needs
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Given by Douglas McGregor. Proposed two theory about human nature:- Theory X (Negative view of people i.e. Little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibilities.) Theory Y (Positive view of people i.e. employees enjoy work, seek out and accepts responsibilities and exercise self direction) Theory Y assumptions should motivated
Theory X Assumptions:- Most people dislike work and avoid it whenever possible They need to be directed, controlled and threatened with punishment in order to move them to work and achieve organizational goals. An average person is lazy, shuns responsibility, prefers to be directed, has little ambition and is only concerned with his own security. Most people avoid leading and want to be led and supervised. They are unwilling to accept reasonability.
Theory Y Assumptions:- Work is natural to most people and they enjoy the physical and mental effort involved in working, similar to rest or play. Commitment to goals & objectives of the organization is also a natural state of behavior for most individuals. They will exercise self-direction & self-control in pursuit & achievement of organizational goals. Commitment to goals and objectives is a function of rewards available, especially the rewards of appreciation and recognition. Most people have the capacity for innovation and creativity for solving organizational problems. Many individuals seek leadership[ roles in preference to the security of being led.
Ouchi’s Theory Z This theory is rooted in the idea that employees who are involved in and are committed to an organization will be motivated to increase productivity. Based on the Japanese approach to management and motivation, Theory Z managers provide rewards to their employees such as:- Long term employment Promotion from within Participatory Decision-making Concern for younger workers Care for workers family Equality
Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Given by Frederick Herzberg. Also called Motivation-Hygiene theory. The Motivators (Intrinsic Factors) are related to job satisfaction. The Hygiene Factors (Extrinsic Factors) are those factors which can reduce dissatisfaction but can not increase satisfaction.
Hygiene Factors Company Policies & administrative rules and regulations Working Conditions & Security Supervisors Technical & Managerial Competence Interpersonal relations with co-workers
Motivational Factors The job itself, which the workers must like & enjoy Recognition which leads to feeling of worth & self esteem Achievement, which is what employees feel on successfully achieving a goal or completing the assigned tasks.
Leadership According to Louis A Allen- “ Leadership is the interpersonal influence exercised in a particular situation and directed though communication process towards attainment of the specified goals” The quality of influencing the behavior of others to achieve some goals. Positions that are labeled as Managerial/Supervisory usually have more opportunities to leadership but does Leadership really only confined to Upper Level Management??
Leadership and Power Power is the capacity to influence work actions or decisions. Types of Power are:- Expert Referent Legitimate Reward Power Coercive
Leadership Style Autocratic Leadership Permits Quick Decision making May lead to frustration, low morale and Conflicts Suitable when subordinates are uneducated, unskilled and submissive Democratic Style Involves employees in decision making Delegate authorities and uses feedback Time consuming and may take time in decision making Laissez-faire Style Lets the group make decision and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit Avoids power and relinquishes the leadership Position Have positive effect on job satisfaction and morale of subordinates
Characteristics of Controlling Function Pervasive function Continuous Process Basis of Control Backward and forward looking Process Action Oriented Process
Control:- Nature and Significance Ensures Adjustment or Conformity to Objectives Regulates Activity Regulates Behavior Ensures adjustments or Conformity to Specification Control