Presentation on theme: "The Revolutions Continue. Latin America Creoles- Latin Americans descended from Europeans Mestizos- Native American and European descent Mulattoes- African."— Presentation transcript:
Latin America Creoles- Latin Americans descended from Europeans Mestizos- Native American and European descent Mulattoes- African and European descent Latin Americans, espec. Creoles see other revolutions and want their own Napoleon’s conquering of Spain inspires them
Brazil-1822 Napoleon conquers Portugal- royal family flees to Brazil King returns to Portugal, but leaves his son, Pedro, in charge in Brazil Brazil wants independence- led by Pedro Brazil becomes a constitutional monarchy Last L.A. country to abolish slavery (1888) Becomes a republic in 1889
Simon Bolivar From Venezuela Wanted to create a union of S. American Spanish colonies After several attempts, he frees Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador from Spanish rule- 1824 Peru and Bolivia soon after Not able to unite them
Mexico- 1821 Led by Fathers Miguel Hidalgo, and Jose Morelos Wanted to end unequal system of land ownership – Land redistribution is important concept in Mexican revolution Fought against Spanish and Creole elite
Latin American Revolutions: General concepts Leaders were usually moderates (wanted to give people some rights but not too many) Indian population was not usually involved with the movements Women and Indians had access to education Federalist outlook- wanted more power in local hands- not centralized Independence ends legalized discrimination but… Social structure remains basically unchanged
882 – Capital established at Kiev (Kievan Russia) – Historically very influenced by Byzantines 1237-1380 – Mongols (Tatars) control Russia Russian history till now
1547- Ivan the Terrible becomes 1 st Czar (Tsar) – Moscow is center of government 1613 – Michael Romanov founds Romanov dynasty 1682 – Peter the Great – 1 st emperor 1762 – Catherine the Great 1801 – Alexander I (fights Napoleon) Russia explores N. America, Hawaii, Alaska 1825 – Nicholas I – loses Crimean War (1854)- vs. Ottomans/ Britain and France. demonstrates Russia’s lack of industrialization 1855 – Alexander II – ends Serfdom in 1861 1894 – Nicholas II – Last Tsar Russian history till now
The Ottoman Empire Europeans gain influence- “Millet System” Weakened Ottoman Empire begins to lose territories and is in debt Fights off Russia in the Crimean War(1854-6) with help of British and French Tanzimat reforms: try to westernize Ottoman empire (universities, newspapers)- too little, too late Influx of people from rural to urban areas Young Turks- intellectuals promoting modernization and some westernization; unsuccessful Many elites oppose reforms
Ottomans do not industrialize Dependent on Europeans for manufactured goods Artisans lose business (open markets) Give Europeans privileges in exchange for goods One of those is Extraterritoriality Ottoman Empire becomes known as the “Sick man of Europe” Ottomans cont.
Manchu invaders from the north conquer China and establish the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) Continue Chinese social and political policies: Confucianism, civil service exams China
In order to stop the flow of gold and silver to China, Britain exports opium from India China becomes addicted; when they try to stop the importation of Opium, war begins Opium War (1839-42) Britain wins, gets Hong Kong, access to trading ports, extraterritoriality Taiping Rebellion-1850- more than 20 million killed, diseases, devastation, refugees, regional warlords maintain some power Boxer Rebellion-1898-1900
Cheating on civil service exams Public works allowed to fall into disrepair Taxes diverted to benefit rich Famine and disease Banditry Elites and empress Dowager do not sponsor reform or limit their power The Qing have lost the…? Decline of the Qing
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