Postclassical Civilizations

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Presentation transcript:

Postclassical Civilizations
Reporting Category 3 Postclassical Civilizations

Justinian Byzantine Emporer Codification of Roman Law
Justinian Code Basis for Western Legal systems Reconquest of former Roman Territories Expansion of Trade Constantinople’s location was at the center of trade routes

Byzantine Achievements
Art and Architecture Byzantine Culture Inspiration provided by Christian religion and Imperial Power Icons (religious images) Mosaics in public & religious structures (pieces of colored tile or glass) Hagia Sophia –Domed Church in Constantinople Continued traditions of Greco-Roman culture Greek Language Greek Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox) Greek & Roman Knowledge was preserved in Byzantine Libraries

Division in the Christian Church
Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Centered in Rome Farther from the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Latin in the Liturgy Pope was the Head of the Church No Emperor to answer to Centered in Constantinople Close to the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek in the liturgy Patriarch was head of church Underneath the Emperor

Division in the Christian Church
The Great Schism – Split in the Christian Church Authority of the Pope was eventually accepted in the West Authority of the Patriarch was accepted in the East Differences is Church Practices Celibacy Use of Icons Language

Byzantine Culture, Eastern Europe, & Russia
Constantinople was located on the trade routes between the Black and Baltic Seas Much of Eastern Europe, as well as Russia, adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity St. Cyril adapted the Greek alphabet for the Slavic People (Cyrillic Alphabet) Influence on Church architecture and religious art

Church Architecture Byzantine Church Roman Catholic Church

Origins, Beliefs, Customs, & Spread of Islam
Muhammad, the Prophet Mecca & Median – Early Muslim cities on the Saudi Arabian peninsula Islam spread across Asia and Africa, and into Spain Monotheistic – Allah (Arabic word for God) Qu’ran (Koran) – The word of God (Holy Book) Five Pillars of Islam – Basis of beliefs Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus

Historical Turning Points in ISLAM
The death of Muhammad led to a split in the Islamic Faith Sunni – Shi’a division Muslim conquests of Jerusalem Christian attempts to recapture Jerusalem - Crusades Umayyad Dynasty moved the Muslim capital to Damascus Abbasid Dynasty moved the Muslim capital to Baghdad Muslims defeated by Charles Martel (Franks) at the Battle of Tours End of Muslim Expansion into Western Europe Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols End of Muslim Empire

Cultural Contributions of Muslim Empire
Architecture (The Dome of the Rock) Mosaics Arabic Alphabet Universities Translation of Ancient texts into Arabic

Cultural Contributions of the Muslim Empire
The Dome of the Rock Mosaics Arabic Alphabet Universities (Calligraphy)

Scientific Contributions of the Muslim World
Arabic Numerals Adapted from India Included Zero Algebra Medicine Expansion of Geographic Knowledge

Foundations of Early Medieval Society
Classical Heritage of Rome Christian Beliefs Customs of Germanic tribes Influence of the Roman Catholic Church Secular authority declined, while Church authority grew Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements Missionaries carried Christianity & Latin alphabet to Germanic Tribes Pope anointed Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emporer” in 800 A.D. Parish Priest served the social and religious needs of the people

Age of Charlemagne Franks emerged as a Western European force
The Pope crowned the Emperor in 800 A.D. The church’s power was established in politics Roman culture was reinterpreted Most of Western Europe was a part of this new Empire Churches, Roads, and Schools were built to unite the Empire