The Crusades 1071-1291. The Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.

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The Crusades

The Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. Key Events of the Crusades  Pope Urban’s speech (pg. 382)  The capture of Jerusalem  Founding of Crusader states  Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin (pg. 383)  Sack of Constantinople by western Crusaders

Key Events Alexius Comnenus I (Byzantine Emperor) appealed to Pope Urban II for military aid Post-2nd Crusade Jerusalem captured by Muslims Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin (Muslim leader) 1188 Pope Urban’s Speech to mob of peasants “Dieu le voit!” – God wills it! 4 th Crusade Sack of Constantinople by western Crusaders First Crusade Crusader states = Jerusalem, Antioch, Edessa, Tripoli The Great Schism The Church splits over excommunication

Effects of The Crusades  Weakened the power and influence of the Pope and nobles  Strengthened the power of the monarchs  Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean and the Middle East  Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims  Weakened the Byzantine Empire

 Mongol armies invaded Russia, Southwest Asia, and China thus creating an empire and destroying cities and countryside.  Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire.  Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, ending the Byzantine Empire. – Became the capital of the Ottoman Empire

Economic Effects of the Crusades The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many desirable products. Trade promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires. New economic institutions developed.

Economic Effects of the Crusades  Increased the demand for Middle Eastern products  Stimulated production of goods for trade in Middle Eastern markets (perfumes, oils, minerals, jewels, etc.)  Encouraged the use of credit and banking  The Church rule against usury and the banks’ practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern Italy.  Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade  New accounting and bookkeeping practices (use of Arabic numerals) were introduced.

Education was largely confined to the clergy during the Middle Ages. The masses were uneducated, while the nobility was concerned with feudal obligations. Church scholars preserved ancient literature in monasteries in the East and West. Church Scholars  Were among the very few who could read and write  Worked in monasteries  Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin  Made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science available in Europe  Laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe

The Black Death: 1347 – 1665 In the 14 th century, the Black Death (Bubonic plague) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe. Impact of Black Death  Population declined (1/3 of Europe or Million People) – Resulted in scarcity of labor  Towns were freed from feudal obligations  Church influence declined  Trade was disrupted

The Plague Doctor Bloodletting Drink molten gold Amulets Vinegar Herbs