Muslim Civilization Chapter 10, Section 3
Key Terms Omar Khayayam: Muslim poet, mathematician, and astronomer.
Caliph: a Muslim ruler Sufis: A Muslim group that believes they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting and a simple life. Sultan: A Muslim ruler, particulary the ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
The Spread of Islam Arab merchants traveled to many parts, many of them were Muslims, and they helped to spread their new religious beliefs. Arab armies also conquered neighboring regions. This was another way that Islam spread. In 717, the Arabs attacked Constantinople, and even if they were not able to take the great fortress, most Christians who lived along the eastern and southern Mediterranean eventually converted to Islam. By the 700’s Muslims had also crossed to Spain. The Battle of Tours, in 732, when Arabs forces were defeated by European soldiers halted the Muslim advance into Christian Europe.
Reasons for Success By that time, the three empires that might have stopped the Arab expansion (Roman, Byzantine and Persian) were either defeated or weakened. Also, a shared religion now united the arab peoples into one community. And once they began to work together the Muslims quickly grew powerful.
Under Muslim Rule Muslims tolerated other faiths
Christians and Jewish were allowed to pursue their own business. Non-Muslim citizens had fewer rihts: Forbidden to carry weapons Could not serve in the military Paid special tax
The Golden Age The golden age of Muslim culture from about 800 to 1100 was a brilliant period of history. Great advances were made in mathematics, science, literature and architecture.
The Age of the Caliphs One reason to the achievements was the wealth of the Arab world. The wealth came from the many lands and from trade. Baghdad was the capital during the golden age. Traders from all over the world brought their goods to the caliph’s court. The caliph was considered to be Muhammad’s successor.
Achievements of the Golden Age Mathematics and Science
They studied both: Greek and Indian mathematics. They learned about the idea of zero from Indian scholars. Al Khwarizmi wrote a book explaining Indian arithmetic. He also helped invent algebra. These advances contributed to the great discovers in Astronomy, physics and chemistry. Ibn Sina or Avicenna organized the medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into the Canon of Medicine.
Achievements of the Golden Age Literature
Poetry was particularly important in the Islamic world Sufis used poetry to teach their ideas and beliefs. They believed that they could draw close to God through prayer, fasting and living a simple life. The most famous Sufi poet was Rumi.
The Ottoman Empire After about 900, the power of the caliphs declined when Mongols killed the last caliph in Bagdad. Much of the Muslim world was now controlled by Mongols and Turks. The Ottoman ruler, or sultan, now held much of southeastern Europe and Turkey. Once again, much of the Muslim world was united under one ruler. The Ottomans treated Jewish and Christians with tolerance which helped them strengthen the empire. After Europeans defeated the Ottomans in 1683, the Ottoman Empire began a long decline.
C.10, S3 Assessment (a) Recall. Describe the two main ways the Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula. (b) Synthesize Information. Why might the Arabs have chosen Baghdad as their capital? (c) Generalize. How do geography and trade contribute to a city’s prosperity and power? (a) Identify. Name three Arab contributions to mathemathics and science. (b) Analyze. How do these contributions combine borrowed knowledge and new idead? (a) Recall. What earlier empire did the Ottoman conquer? (b) Infer. How might control of this early empire, including its capital city, have increased the power of the Ottomans?