1 LECTURE # 27 THE END OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS COMPOSITION OF MATTER CLASSICAL EXPERIMENTS PHYS 270-SPRING 2010 Dennis Papadopoulos APRIL 24, 2010.

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1 LECTURE # 27 THE END OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS COMPOSITION OF MATTER CLASSICAL EXPERIMENTS PHYS 270-SPRING 2010 Dennis Papadopoulos APRIL 24, 2010

Current through the water decomposes it to Hydrogen and Oxygen –Bubbles of them come out near electrodes Cl - -> Cl+e - Faraday: Electrolysis can be understood on the basis of atomic theory of matter- Charge associated with each atom or molecule in the solution. Positive and negative ions.

Battery vs. Fuel Cell

Gaseous Discharges 1.Current flows driving discharge 2.Discharge color depends on gas (N 2, Neon) 3.Cathode glow – Independent of gas Connection between color of light and type of atoms in the discharge Unification of matter-electricity-light SPECTROSCOPY HELIUM EXAMPLE

Cathode Rays IMPROVED PUMPS->LOW PRESSURE-> CATODE GLOW DOMINATES+GLASS EMITS GREENISH GLOW (FLUORESCENCE) SOMETHING BLOCKING FLOW Crooke’s Tubes led to 1.Electric current associated with cathode rays 2.The rays are deflected by a magnetic field like a negative charge 3.Cathodes of any metal produce cathode rays. Ray properties independent of metal type. 4.Rays can exert forces on objects. Thin foil gets hot and glows red.

Are Cathode Rays Charged Particles ? Enter J.J.Thomson – OK for NaCl but what about He (monatomic gas)- Roentgen X-rays Atoms should be composed of positive and negative parts Confirmed that cathode rays were negatively charged particles but could not measure the q/m Deflection depends on q/m and v

Cross – Field Experiment Thomson found q/m=10 11 Cb/kg For Hydrogen q/m=10 8 Cb/kg Cathode ray particle has either much larger charge or much smaller mass.

FOUND THAT NEGATIVE PARTICLES EMITTED FROM METALS HAVE THE SAME q/m. -> ELECTRONS ARE CONSTITUENT OF ALL MATTER

V, L, and d are all measurable characteristics of the apparatus If you can measure v x, then you can determine e/m. A magnetic field can be used to just cancel the deflection and determine v x.

Determining the electron charge e separately. Spray small droplets of oil which quickly reach terminal velocity due to air resistance. Small number of droplets fall between two plates into to a region of constant electric field. Velocity of fall can be estimated by measuring the time to fall a distance d. Ionizing radiation then charges the droplet, introducing an electric force. Charge is quantized. By measuring the velocity of a number of particles with the field on and off and assuming that the electric charges must be multiples of each other, e can be determined.

Measuring the mass- Millikan’ Experiment

IF MATTER COMPOSED OF ATOMS WHAT ATOMS ARE COMPOSED OF? FARADAY –ELECTROLYSIS THOMSON – ELECTRONS q/m MILLIKAN – ELECTRONIC q RUTHERFORD – NUCLEAR MODEL

positive charge is concentrated at the center of the atom in an area ~1/1000 th the size of the atom the mass of the electron is very small compared to the mass of the atom (one thousand times less than the hydrogen atom