The Crusades & Islamic Contributions to the West.

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The Crusades & Islamic Contributions to the West

The Crusades: Background Crusades = “war of the cross” Crusades = “war of the cross” Series of wars sanctioned by the Papacy from 11 th -13 th centuries Series of wars sanctioned by the Papacy from 11 th -13 th centuries Who: French, German & Italian Christians Who: French, German & Italian Christians Why: Jerusalem, land & trade Why: Jerusalem, land & trade Major Crusades I-VIII Major Crusades I-VIII Results: Mixed Results: Mixed

Why? Battle of Manzikert (1071) Battle of Manzikert (1071) –Byzantine Empire defeated by the Muslim Saljuqs –Byzantine Emperor, Alexius I asks Pope Urban II for help against the Muslims

“God wills it!” Council of Clermont (1095) Council of Clermont (1095) –Pope Urban II preaches to the knights of Christendom for the First Crusade –Call to defend the Byzantine Empire & retake Jerusalem, as well as some personal motives

The Crusades First Crusade ( ): First Crusade ( ): –1 st groups led by Peter the Hermit & Walter the Penniless (but these folks quickly fell apart & were annihilated) –Captured Jerusalem –Established small Crusader states Second Crusade ( ): Second Crusade ( ): –Failure (~1 in 10 survive) Third Crusade ( ): Third Crusade ( ): –Failed attempt to recapture Jerusalem Fourth Crusade ( ): Fourth Crusade ( ): –Initially through Egypt, but diverted to loot Constantinople Crusades Five-Eight: Crusades Five-Eight: –Same as before; captured & lost cities

What went wrong? Mixed group of volunteers Mixed group of volunteers –Poor leadership; disorganization; no strategy –Crossing 1000s of miles of unfamiliar land –Some Crusaders decided to stay in villages along the way Muslims eventually got better at counterattacking Muslims eventually got better at counterattacking All in all, not very successful, but not a complete waste… All in all, not very successful, but not a complete waste…

Positive Results Slowed expansion of Islam Slowed expansion of Islam Increase in trade & exploration Increase in trade & exploration –Increase in travel on roads by merchants –Establishment of direct trade with the Muslim world  Spices, fine cloths, coral, pearls, porcelain Western exposure to classical knowledge and scholarship Western exposure to classical knowledge and scholarship –Science –Medicine –Architecture –And much more!

Middle Ages Early Early –Roman Empire beginning to crumble –Rise of the Franks –Islam’s spread –The Crusades Late ( ) Late ( ) –Economic problems –Black Death –Great Famine –Growing schism between the Churches

Islam & Science While Europe was in the “Dark Ages,” Islam was making significant scientific advancements While Europe was in the “Dark Ages,” Islam was making significant scientific advancements Arabs had access to classical knowledge; emphasis on scholarship Arabs had access to classical knowledge; emphasis on scholarship –Works of Aristotle, Socrates, Ptolemy, Galen, Pythagoras & Euclid collected, preserved and translated to Arabic Muslim Spain Muslim Spain –Capital of Cordoba = hub of learning in Europe –Library contained over 500,000 volumes College College –First Muslim colleges = late 600’s and early 700’s (University of Paris & Oxford = 13 th century)

Science Scientific Method (inductive method) Scientific Method (inductive method) –Experiments to test theories, citation, peer review –Jabir ibn-Hayyan (“Geber”) Optics Optics –Ibn al Haitham (“Alhazen”) –Used experiments to support Aristotle’s theory of vision –Experimented and wrote about lenses, mirrors, refraction and reflection –Roger Bacon familiar with his work –Influenced Newton’s theories on optics Principle of Pendulum Principle of Pendulum –Used to measure time Chemistry Chemistry –Terms: alcohol, alkali, elixir –Discovered chemical properties of alkalis and acids

Mathematics Influenced by ancient Greek mathematics Influenced by ancient Greek mathematics Introduced the concept of ‘zero’ Introduced the concept of ‘zero’ –Probably learned from Hindu or Chinese Arabic numerals, decimal system Arabic numerals, decimal system –Computations made easier! Helped develop & systematize algebra Helped develop & systematize algebra Developed trigonometry Developed trigonometry

Astronomy Integrated Greek, Persian, and Indian knowledge Integrated Greek, Persian, and Indian knowledge Refined Ptolemaic system Refined Ptolemaic system Updated the star catalogue of Ulugh Beg Updated the star catalogue of Ulugh Beg Made abstract Greek heavens into a solid body Made abstract Greek heavens into a solid body

Philosophy Helped initiate the humanistic movement in the West Helped initiate the humanistic movement in the West –Balance of faith & reason Showed the West that there was more beyond the church – not darkness, but the light of knowledge Showed the West that there was more beyond the church – not darkness, but the light of knowledge Christian scholastics borrowed from Islamic philosophy Christian scholastics borrowed from Islamic philosophy –St. Thomas Main Influence on Christian thought: Main Influence on Christian thought: –Avicenna – “the father of modern medicine” –Averroes

Medicine Concerned with principles of medicine & hygiene Concerned with principles of medicine & hygiene Integrated Greek (Hippocratic & Galenic), Persian & Indian traditions and practices Integrated Greek (Hippocratic & Galenic), Persian & Indian traditions and practices Al-Razi Al-Razi –1 st description of small pox –Immune system Hospitals Hospitals -One in every major city -Cairo = 8000 beds with wards

Summary Western scholars exposed to classical knowledge of the Greeks & Romans through the works of Islamic (& Jewish) scholars Western scholars exposed to classical knowledge of the Greeks & Romans through the works of Islamic (& Jewish) scholars The contact with and subsequent knowledge exchange with the Islamic world helped pave the way towards the rediscovery of ancient knowledge The contact with and subsequent knowledge exchange with the Islamic world helped pave the way towards the rediscovery of ancient knowledge