Muscles.

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Presentation transcript:

Muscles

Pectoralis Minor Origin 3rd to 5th ribs near their costal cartilages Insertion Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula Action Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall Innervation Medial pectoral nerves;

Pectoralis Major Origin Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages Insertion Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus Action Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly Innervation Lateral and medial pectoral nerves;

Deltoid Origin Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula Insertion Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action Anterior part: flexes Middle part: abducts arm Posterior part: extends Innervation Axillary nerve (C5 and C6)

Biceps Brachii Origin Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Insertion Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis Action Supinates forearm and, when it is supine, flexes forearm Innervation Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6 )

Brachialis Origin Distal half of anterior surface of humerus Insertion Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna Action Major flexor of forearm -- flexes forearm in all positions primarily pronated Innervation Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6)

Brachioradialis Origin Proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondyle ridge of humerus Insertion Lateral surface of distal end of radius Action Flexes forearm in a neutral position Innervation Radial nerve (C5, C6 and C7)

Coracobrachialis Origin Tip of coracoid process of scapula Insertion Middle third of medial surface of humerus Action Helps to flex and adduct arm Innervation Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6 and C7)

Trapezius Origin Medial third of superior nuchal line; base of the occitpital bone Insertion Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula Action Elevates, retracts and rotates scapula; superior fibers elevate, middle fibers retract, and inferior fibers depress scapula; superior and inferior fibers act together in superior rotation of scapula Innervation Spinal root of accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor) and cervical nerves (C3 and C4) (pain and proprioception)

Rhomboid Major and Minor Origin Minor: nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae Major: spinous processes of T2 - T5 vertebrae Insertion Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle Action Retract scapula and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall Innervation Dorsal scapular nerve ( C4 and C5)

Latissimus Dorsi Origin Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs Insertion intertubercular groove of humerus Action Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing Innervation Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, and C8)

Triceps Brachii Origin Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove Insertion Olecranon process of ulna and fascia of forearm Action Chief extensor of elbow Innervation Radial nerve (C6, C7 and C8)

Adductor Brevis Origin Anterior surface of inferior pubic ramus, inferior to origin of adductor longus Insertion medial lip of linea aspera of the Femur Action Adducts and flexes the thigh, Innervation obturator nerve

Gracilis Origin Inferior margin of pubic symphysis, inferior ramus of pubis, and adjacent ramus of ischium Insertion Medial surface of tibial shaft, just posterior to sartorius Action Flexes the knee, adducts the thigh, and helps to medially rotate the tibia on the femur Innervation Anterior division of obturator nerve

Pectineus Origin Pubic bone Insertion Pectineal line of femur Action Adducts the thigh and flexes the hip joint Innervation Femoral nerve

Adductor Longus Origin Anterior surface of body of pubis, just lateral to pubic symphysis Insertion Middle third of linea aspera of the femur, Action Adducts and flexes the thigh, and helps to laterally rotate the hip joint Innervation Anterior division of obturator nerve

Adductor Magnus Origin Inferior pubic ramus Insertion Gluteal tuberosity of femur, medial lip of linea aspera, medial supracondylar ridge, and adductor tubercle Action Powerful thigh adductor Innervation Posterior division of obturator nerve innervates

Vastus Medialis Origin medial lip of linea aspera, superior part of medial supracondylar ridge of femur Insertion Medial base of quadriceps tendon Action Extends the knee Innervation femoral nerve

Vastus Intermedius Origin Superior 2/3 of anterior and lateral surfaces of femur Insertion Lateral border of patella Action Extends the knee Innervation femoral nerve

Vastus Lateralis Origin greater trochanter, superior portion of lateral lip of linea aspera Insertion Lateral base and border of patella; lateral side of quadriceps femoris tendon Action Extends the knee Innervation femoral nerve

Rectus Femoris Origin anterior inferior iliac spine Insertion Base of patella to form the more central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon Action Extends the knee & flexes the hip Innervation femoral nerve

Iliopsoas Origin (2) Psoas from anterior surfaces and lower borders of transverse processes of L1 - L5 Iliacus from upper 2/3 of iliac fossa of ilium Insertion Lesser trochanter Action Flex the hip Innervation Psoas from direct fibers of L1 - L3 of lumbar plexus; Iliacus femoral nerve

Gluteus Maximus Origin Posterior aspect of dorsal ilium, posterior superior iliac crest, posterior inferior aspect of sacrum and coccyx Insertion iliotibial band; also into the gluteal tuberosity on posterior femoral surface Action Major extensor of hip joint Innervation Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)

Gluteus Medius Origin Dorsal ilium inferior to iliac crest Insertion Lateral and superior surfaces of greater trochanter Action Major abductor of thigh Innervation Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Gluteus Minimus Origin Dorsal ilium between inferior and anterior gluteal line Insertion Anterior surface of greater trochanter Action Abducts Innervation Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Tensor Fascia Lata Origin Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion Iliotibial band Action Abducts and Helps stabilize and steady the hip and knee joints by putting tension on the iliotibial band of fascia Innervation Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Extensor Hallucis Longus Origin Anterior surface of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane Insertion Base and dorsal center of distal phalanx of great toe Action Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle Innervation Deep peroneal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Extensor Digitorum Longus Origin Lateral condyle of fibula, upper 2/3 - 3/4 of medial fibular shaft surface Insertion Splits into 4 tendon slips each of which insert on middle and distal phalanges Action Extend toes 2 - 5 and dorsiflexes ankle Innervation Deep peroneal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Tibialis Anterior Origin Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 1/2 - 2/3 Insertion Medial and plantar surfaces of 1st cuneiform and on base of first metatarsal Action Dorsiflexor of ankle Innervation Deep peroneal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

Peroneus Brevis Origin Inferior 2/3 of lateral fibular surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg Insertion Base of 5th metatarsal base Action Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle Innervation Superficial peroneal nerve

Peroneus Longus Origin Head of fibula, upper 1/2 - 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft Insertion medial cuneiform and lateral side of 1st metatarsal base Action Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle Innervation Superficial peroneal nerve

Peroneus Tertius Origin the medial fibular shaft surface Insertion Dorsal surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal Action Works with the extensor digitorum longus to dorsiflex, evert and abduct the foot Innervation Deep peroneal nerve

Gastrocnemius Origin Medial head from posterior nonarticular surface of medial femoral condyle; Lateral head from lateral surface of femoral lateral condyle Insertion the Achilles tendon, inserting on the middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface Action Powerful plantar flexor of ankle InnervationTibial nerve (S1, S2)

Soleus Origin Posterior aspect of fibular head, Insertion Achilles tendon, inserting on the middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface Action Powerful plantar flexor of ankle Innervation Tibial nerve (S1, S2)

Plantaris Origin Inferior aspect of lateral supracondylar line of distal femur Insertion Middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface, just medial to Achilles tendon Action Plantar flexor of ankle; also flexes knee Innervation Tibial nerve (L5, S1, S2)

Tibialis Posterior Origin Posterior aspect of interosseous membrane, superior 2/3 of medial posterior surface of fibula, Insertion 2 superficial slip inserts on the tuberosity of the navicular bone and sometimes medial cuneiform; deeper slip divides again into slips inserting on plantar sufraces of metatarsals 2 - 4 and second cuneiform Action Principal invertor of foot Innervation Tibial nerve (L4, L5)

Semitendinosus Origin the ischial tuberosity Insertion Superior aspect of medial portion of tibial shaft Action Extends the thigh and flexes the knee Innervation Tibial nerve

Semimembranosus Origin ischial tuberosity Insertion Posterior surface of the medial tibial condyle Action Extends the thigh, flexes the knee, and also rotates the tibia medially, especially when the knee is flexed Innervation Tibial nerve

Biceps Femoris Origins (2) Long head ischial tuberosity; short head from lateral lip of linea aspera of femur Insertion Primarily on fibular head Action Flexes the knee and the long head also extends the hip joint Innervation Long head by tibial nerve; short head by common peroneal nerve

Sartorius Origin Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion Superior aspect of the medial surface of the tibial shaft near the tibial tuberosity Action Flexes and laterally rotates the hip joint and flexes the knee Innervation Femoral nerve

Rectus Abdominis Origin Pubis Crest Insertion Ribs (5th, 6th, & 7th) Xipoid Process Action Spine (Lumbar) Flexion Innervation thoraco-abdominal nerves

Transverse abdominis Origin the lateral third of the inguinal ligament, from the inner lip of the iliac crest Insertion The muscle ends in front in a broad aponeurosis, Action compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability Innervation lower intercostal nerves

Internal oblique Origin: Inguinal ligament, Iliac crest and the Lumbodorsa fascia. Insertion: Linea alba, Xiphoid process and the inferior ribs. Nerve: lower intercostal nerves Action: rotates the torso on the same side

External oblique Origin: Lower 8 costae Insertion Illiac crest, ligamentum inguinale Nerve: lower 6 intercostal nerve + subcostal nerve Action: Rotates torso on the opposite side