THE CRUSADES LT 9.2- I can describe the Crusades including unification of Spain and the fall of Constantinople.
Importance of Jerusalem Jerusalem is an important city to all three major monotheistic religions – Judaism: Holiest city given to them by Yahweh – Christianity: place where Jesus preached and location of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre – Islam: City visited by Muhammad and location of the Dome of the Rock
Quest for Jerusalem – In 1095, Muslims closed Jerusalem to Jews and Christians. The Byzantine emperor wrote Pope Urban II asking for help re-open Jerusalem (Holy Land). Pope Urban called for a crusade, or holy war – Against the Islamic forces in Jerusalem. – Three armies of knights and peasants traveled to the Holy Land.
Why A Crusade? Pope Urban II had read the Emperor’s appeal and decided to issue a call for a “Crusade,” a holy war to win Jerusalem, rather than simply send a small number of troops To bring the Eastern Orthodox Church back under the Roman Catholic Church To stop European knights from fighting each other by giving them a common enemy To return Jerusalem to Christian rule and reduce the power and influence of Islam
Spreading the crusader spirit Economic and religious motivations caused Knights to participate in the Crusades Lack of opportunity for peasants and second sons in Europe. Kings and the Church saw an opportunity to get rid of troublesome knights. Fight for God The Church said that knights who went on Crusade could have their sins forgiven Those who died on Crusade were guaranteed a place in heaven.
1 st Crusades In 1099, crusading armies inspired by Pope Urban’s speech, invaded and took control of Jerusalem. – Victorious, but unprepared They knew nothing about the geography, climate, or culture of the Holy Land. They had no strategy or adequate supply lines. – Four feudal Crusader states were formed in Jerusalem and surrounding areas, each ruled by a European noble. – These Crusader states were vulnerable to Muslim counterattack and would fall in 1144.
2 nd Crusade The Second Crusade was organized to recapture Jerusalem In 1187, Europeans learned that Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslim leader Saladin. – The Europeans suffered a dramatic loss and the survivors straggled back home.
Saladin vs. Richard the Lionhearted (Third ( ) Crusades) Richard the Lionhearted (King of England) led armies from Western Europe against Saladin’s Muslim armies. After many battles, the two agreed to a truce. – Muslims kept control of Jerusalem. – Saladin promised that unarmed Christians could freely visit the city’s holy places.
Fourth and Final Crusade The Fourth Crusade – Ended as European knights got entangled in Italian and Byzantine disputes Ended up looting the city of Constantinople.
Effects of the Crusades 1) Monarchies were strengthened, while the Pope and European nobles suffered. – Nobles fought in the Crusades, but also provided soldiers and paid their expenses. Many nobles died and many more became poor. – The pope and the Catholic Church lost power and influence. The lack of victories to regain Jerusalem caused people to lose confidence. Europeans realized that the Church wanted Crusades for worldly, not holy, reasons..
2) Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. – Christians traveling to fight in the Holy Land learned about goods and remained in Muslim territories to become merchants. 3) Increasing bitterness between Christians and Muslims 4) Fall of Byzantium – Looting left city vulnerable to Ottomans