Postclassical Civilizations Reporting Category 3.

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Presentation transcript:

Postclassical Civilizations Reporting Category 3

Justinian Byzantine Emporer Codification of Roman Law - Justinian Code - Basis for Western Legal systems Reconquest of former Roman Territories Expansion of Trade - Constantinople’s location was at the center of trade routes

Byzantine Achievements Art and ArchitectureByzantine Culture Inspiration provided by Christian religion and Imperial Power Icons (religious images) Mosaics in public & religious structures (pieces of colored tile or glass) Hagia Sophia –Domed Church in Constantinople Continued traditions of Greco-Roman culture Greek Language Greek Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox) Greek & Roman Knowledge was preserved in Byzantine Libraries

Division in the Christian Church The Great Schism – Split in the Christian Church Authority of the Pope was eventually accepted in the West Authority of the Patriarch was accepted in the East Differences is Church Practices Celibacy Use of Icons Language

Division in the Christian Church Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Centered in Rome Farther from the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Latin in the Liturgy Pope was the Head of the Church No Emperor to answer to Centered in Constantinople Close to the seat of power after Constantinople became capital Use of Greek in the liturgy Patriarch was head of church Underneath the Emperor

Byzantine Culture, Eastern Europe, & Russia Constantinople was located on the trade routes between the Black and Baltic Seas Much of Eastern Europe, as well as Russia, adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity St. Cyril adapted the Greek alphabet for the Slavic People (Cyrillic Alphabet) Influence on Church architecture and religious art

Church Architecture Byzantine Church Roman Catholic Church

Origins, Beliefs, Customs, & Spread of Islam Muhammad, the Prophet Mecca & Median – Early Muslim cities on the Saudi Arabian peninsula Islam spread across Asia and Africa, and into Spain Monotheistic – Allah (Arabic word for God) Qu’ran (Koran) – The word of God (Holy Book) Five Pillars of Islam – Basis of beliefs Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus

Historical Turning Points in ISLAM The death of Muhammad led to a split in the Islamic Faith Sunni – Shi’a division Muslim conquests of Jerusalem Christian attempts to recapture Jerusalem - Crusades Umayyad Dynasty moved the Muslim capital to Damascus Abbasid Dynasty moved the Muslim capital to Baghdad Muslims defeated by Charles Martel (Franks) at the Battle of Tours End of Muslim Expansion into Western Europe Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols End of Muslim Empire

Cultural Contributions of Muslim Empire Architecture (The Dome of the Rock) Mosaics Arabic Alphabet Universities Translation of Ancient texts into Arabic

Cultural Contributions of the Muslim Empire The Dome of the Rock Mosaics Arabic Alphabet (Calligraphy) Universities

Scientific Contributions of the Muslim World Arabic Numerals Adapted from India Included Zero Algebra Medicine Expansion of Geographic Knowledge

Foundations of Early Medieval Society Classical Heritage of Rome Geographic connection to the Roman Empire Christian Beliefs Only stable, consistent force during this time Customs of Germanic tribes Loyalty based on bravery, honor and family ties

Influence of the Catholic Church Secular (non-religious) authority declined, while Church authority grew Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements Missionaries carried Christianity & Latin alphabet to Germanic Tribes Pope anointed Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor” in 800 A.D. Parish Priest served the social and religious needs of the people

Age of Charlemagne Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe. The Pope crowned the Emperor. Power of the Church was established in political life. Roman culture was reinterpreted. Most of Western Europe was included in the new empire. Churches, roads, and schools were built to unite the empire.

Feudalism What is it? Why was it needed?

Feudalism The decline of Roman Empire left people with little protection against invasion, so they entered into feudal agreements with landholding lords who promised them protection. Invasions shattered Roman protection over the Empire. Feudal society during the Middle Ages: · Fiefs · Vassals · Serfs · Feudal obligations

Manorial System during the Middle Ages Rigid class structure Each social group played a certain role in society Knights- provided protection Serfs- harvested the land Self-sufficient manors